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" He rescued a child." p. 20 















IT is intended to give, in this work, as far as possible, 
a faithful record of the worth and valour of those 
military adventurers, the " Quentin Durwards" and 
"Dugald Dalgettys" of other days, who carried the name 
of Scotland with honour under every European banner, 
from the earliest period ; but more particularly of those 
who, in the seventeenth century, by the force of circum- 
stances such, for instance, as the union of the Crowns, 
which brought temporary peace at home were enabled to 
offer their swords and services to the monarchs of other 

The number of these Scottish Soldiers of Fortune was 
very great, and in detailing their adventures and achieve- 
ments during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, not 
only individuals, but in some instances entire regiments, 
almost armies of them, will have to be dealt with ; as 
there were fully 13,000 under Gustavus Adolphus, " the 
Lion of the North" (as Dugald Dalgetty has it). About 
the same number went at various times to Denmark, 3,000 
were in Russia, some 6,000 in Holland, 3,000 in France at 
least, and others in Prussia, Spain, and Italy, making more 
than 40,000 Scottish soldiers on the Continent, exclusive 
of 3,000 sent to the Isle Rhe under the Earl of Morton. 


Their achievements will form, \r is hoped, a stirring 
addition to our military annals, omitted in Scottish history, 
and will further show how our people, in whatever land 
they are cast, rise above those by whom they are surrounded, 
as surely as oil rises above water, to quote a writer who 
certainly was no friend to Scotland or her fame ; and how 
many of them won the highest honours, civil and military 
honours which many of their lineal descendants hold in 
the lands of their adoption. 

It will be shown how Scotsmen trained the armies and 
founded the fleets of Russia ; how for generations the old 
Scots Brigade of immortal memory was the boasted 
" Bulwark of Holland" ; while second to none in war and 
glory were the Scottish Guard of the French Kings that 
Guard of which only four were left alive when Francis I 
gave up his sword on the field of Pavia. 

Moreover, in this new mine of Scottish history, many, 
it is hoped, may discover the names of ancestors, relatives, 
and clansmen hitherto unknown to them. 




Carmichael of Howgate Dalziel of Binns Generals Drutn- 
mond and Bruce, the Founder of the Eussian Artillery 
and Engineers Col. Whiteford Geijer's Report. 

AMONG the earliest Scottish adventurers in Russia was 
John Carmichael, son of the Laird of Howgate, and grand- 
son of James Carmichael of Hyndford and that Ilk, who 
took service under the Czar Ivan Basilowitz, a prince 
who did much to promote the civilisation of his subjects, 
by inviting artisans from Liibeck and elsewhere, and who 
first formed a standing army the Strelitz, or Body Guard 
of Archers at the head of which he conquered Kazan in 
1552, and two years subsequently Astrakan. 

John Carmichael, at the head of 5,000 men, greatly 
distinguished himself at the siege of Pleskov, in the district 
of Kiev, then invested by Stephen, King of Poland, when 
its garrison was said to consist of 70,000 foot and 7,000 
horse (which seems barely probable) ; and of this city, 


then the only walled one in Muscovy (Atlas Geo., 1711), 
John Carmichael was made Governor. 

Feodor, the successor of Ivan, in 1595 gave up to Sweden 
the province of Esthonia, where at some early period the 
Douglases must have acquired lands, as there is a place 
there still named the Douglasberg ; but the last heiress of 
that line (says Murray, in his letters from the Baltic, 1841), 
the Countess of Douglas, was married to Count Ingelstrom. 
According to ^Relations of the most Famous Kingdomes, 
published in 1630, the number of Scotch and Dutch in the 
Czar's service is given at only 150 " all in one band." 

General Baron Manstein, in his Memoirs of Russia, 
(1773), tells us that during the war with Poland the Czar 
Alexis Michailowitz, grandson of Feodor, who succeeded 
to the throne in 1645, formed his regiments of infantry on 
the European plan, and gave the command of them to 
foreign officers. " The Regiment of Boutinsky had sub- 
sisted ever since 1642; one Dalziel commanded it," he 
records ; " this regiment was composed of fifty- two com- 
panies, each of a hundred men. There are also to be seen 
ancient lists of the regiment of the First Moskowsky of the 
year 1648 : a General Drummond was the commander." 

The name of the former is pretty familiar to the Scots 
as that of the terrible old " Persecutor," Sir Thomas 
Dalziel of the Binns, whose spirit is yet averred to haunt 
the fields where he slew the children of the Covenant, who 
was supposed to be shot-proof, and whose spectre, with a 
voluminous white " vow-beard," still haunts the house in 
which he was born and the tomb in which he was laid at 
Binns, in 1685. 


After serving as Colonel in the Scottish contingcnb of 
eight battalions sent in 1641 to protect our Ulster colonists, 
being Governor of Carrickfergus, and fighting at Benburb 
and leading a brigade at Worcester, he was committed to 
the Tower of London ; but escaped to reach Russia, where 
a letter from Charles II, then at Cologne, at once procured 
him rank in the Russian service when in his 53rd year ; 
but some obscurity involves his movements in that country, 
as the wars in which he was engaged but little interested 
the rest of Europe. 

The other officer, Lieutenant- General Drummond, was 
afterwards Governor of Smolensko, a city even then of great 
strength ; and was the same officer who brought into 
Scotland the use of the thumb-screw as an instrument of 

Finding them skilful and brave, Alexis invited other 
Scots to join his army ; and erelong, says General 
Manstein, three thousand of them arrived in Russia " after 
the defeat and imprisonment of Charles I. These were 
very well received ; they had a place assigned them con- 
tiguous to the town of Moscow, where they built good houses 
and formed that part of this great city which is distinguished 
to this day by the name of Inostranaya Sloboda, or the 
habitation of strangers." 

One of these adventurers was very probably Christopher 
Galloway, the Scottish horologer, who constructed the 
great clock in the ancient tower of the Spaski at Moscow, 
stated to have been done about this time. 

Among these was certainly James Bruce, who became a 
General, attained the highest honours, and whose successor 


was afterwards the plenipotentiary of the C/ar at the Treaty 
of Neistadt. Two of this name won distinction on the 
Continent. In the German memoirs of Henry James 
Bruce (whom we shall ere long meet in the Prussian 
service) he begins thus : 

" James Bruce and John Bruce, cousins, and descendants 
of the family of Airth, in the county of Stirling, a branch 
of the family of Clackmannan), formed a resolution, during 
the troubles by Oliver Cromwell, to leave their native 
country and push their fortunes abroad ; and as there were 
some ships in the port of Leith ready to sail for the Baltic, 
they agreed to go to that part of the world ; but as there 
happened to be two of these ships' masters of the 
same name, by an odd mistake the cousins embarked in 
different vessels one bound to Prussia, the other to 
Russia by which accident they never again saw each 
other. John Bruce, my grandfather, landed at Koningsberg, 
went to Berlin, and entered the service of the Elector of 

His brother James, in the Russian service, was the first 
officer to render the artillery of that country efficient, and 
this was perfected by his grandson, under Peter, by whom 
the latter was made Master- General of the Ordnance. 
" Artillery was known in Russia," says Baron Mansteiu, 
" so long ago as the reign of Ivan Basilowitz II ; but the 
pieces were of enormous size, and quite unserviceable." 

Under the Master-General Bruce it was soon made equal 
to any artillery in Europe, and by 1714 it numbered 
13,000 pieces. Bruce had foundries at Moscow, St. 
Petersburg, Woronitz, Catharinenburg, and other places, 


and to each regiment of horse and foot two 3-lb. field-pieces 
were attached. Bruce invited his kinsman, Henry James 
(whose memoirs we have quoted), to join him in Russia, 
which he did about 1710 with the rank of Captain of 
Engineers and Artillery. Manstein also records that the 
elder Bruce " took care to form a body of engineers. 
He instituted schools at Moscow and St. Petersburg, 
where youth were taught practical geometry, engineer- 
ing, and gunnery." And this at a time when the 
Muscovites despised all science, looked upon a mathema- 
tician as a sorcerer, and nearly slew a Dutch surgeon for 
having a skeleton in his study. (Earl of Carlisle, etc.) 

The Scots had much to do in developing discipline 
among the half-barbarous hordes of the Russian army. 
The Atlas Geographus, an old topographical work pub- 
lished at the Savoy in London in 1711, says that the 
Russians, in endeavouring to bring their soldiers under 
better discipline, " make use of a great many Scots and 
German officers, who instruct them in all the warlike ex- 
ercises that are practised by other European nations." 

For a long period, says Manstein, Russia had no other 
troops than the Strelitzes, ill-disciplined, ill-clothed, and 
armed with whatever came to hand ; few had firearms, but 
many had a battle-axe called a berdash ; the rest had only 
wooden clubs. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century their infantry 
were armed with a musket, sword, and hatchet, the latter 
slung behind. Their cavalry wore steel caps and corselets, 
and were armed with bows, sabres, spears, mauls, and 
round targets ; and during the epoch of Dalziel, Drummond, 


Bruce, and the Gordons the army had a monster battle- 
drum, braced on the backs of four horses abreast, with 
four drummers at each end to beat it. 

The scene of their first active service was against the 
Poles, with whom Alexis Michailowitz had gone to war in 
1653, and from whom he captured Smolensko, the govern- 
ment of which was given to General Drummond, and 
dreadful devastations followed in Livonia at the storming 
of Dorpt, Kokenhousen, and many other places. 

Dalziel, now raised to the rank of full General, com- 
manded against the Tartars and the Turkish armies of 
Mohammed IV (1654-5), and in these contests, waged at 
the head of barbarous hordes against hordes equally bar- 
barous, the wanderer must have acquired much of that 
unyielding sternness, if not ferocity, which characterised 
his future proceedings in his own country. In these cam- 
paigns quarter was never asked nor given ; prisoners were 
shot, beheaded, impaled, or put to death by slow fires, and 
by every species of torture that Muscovite brutality or the 
nust refined cruelty the Oriental mind could suggest ; and 
in this terrible arena of foreign service was schooled the 
future Colonel of the Scots Greys and commander of the 
Scottish troops the scourge of the Covenanters. 

After eleven years of this wild work, Sir Thomas Dalziel 
and General Drummond were invited home by Charles II, 
whose restoration was accomplished. The first-named 
officer requested from the Czar a certificate of his faithful 
service in Russia. It was given under the great seal of the 
Empire, and a part of it states : 

" That he formerly came hither to serve our Great 


Czarish Majesty : whilst with us, he stood against our 
enemies and fought valiantly. The military men under his 
command he regulated and disciplined, and himself led 
them to battle, and he did and performed everything faith- 
fully as a noble commander." 

From Russia he was accompanied by his comrade, General 
William Drummond of Cromlix, who had also fought at 
Worcester, and who in 1686 was created Lord Drummond 
and Viscount Strathallan, and was ultimately Lord of the 
Treasury, and on the death of Dalziel became Commander- 
iu-(Jhief of the Scottish army. He died in 1688. There 
can be little doubt that these two officers, who, Burnett 
says, were " not without difficulty sent back by the Czar," 
returned to Scotland with hearts boiling with rancour 
against the party which had sold the king and driven 
themselves into long exile. 

After the defeat of Montrose at the battle of Philiphaugh. 
there came into the service of Russia Colonel Walter White- 
ford son of Walter Whiteford, Bishop of Brechin in 1634, 
and previously Rector of Mo Sat, but who was deposed by 
the General Assembly of 1638 an officer who figured in a 
very dark and terrible episode. 

While he was at The Hague with Montrose there came 
thither a Dr. Dorislaus, a D.C.L., a native of Delft, but 
who had been a Professor in Gresham College, was Judge- 
Advocate to the Army of Essex, and as such had assisted 
at the trial of Charles I. While he was at dinner in an inn, 
Colonel Whiteford, with eleven English cavaliers, entered 
the room with their swords drawn, and telling all who 
were present " not to be alarmed," added sternly " that 


their only object was the agent of the rebel Cromwell" ; and 
crying, " Thus dies one of our king's judges," they stabbed 
Dorislaus to death. " The first thrust was given by White- 
ford, who thereafter clave his skull by one blow of his 

From The Hague, Whiteford joined the Russian army, 
-with which he served for several years, and with which he 
remained until the accession of James VII, when he 
returned to Edinburgh, where he was resident in 1691. 
(Dodd's Hist., fol., Brussels ; Echard, Tindal's Rapin, etc.) 
His father, the Bishop, was a daring prelate, who never 
ascended the pulpit without a brace of pistols under his 

The Russia to which the Scots of those days went was a 
barbarous land indeed. In Geijer's history of the Swedes 
a state of Russia was drawn up for Gustavus Adolphus 
" There are two causes of weakness in Russia," says 
Geijer ; " one, corruption of the clergy, whence the educa- 
tion of the people was wretched, so that gluttony and 
bloodshed were not vices, but matters of boast ; the other 
was the foreign (Scots and German) soldiery. For the 
Muscovites, though hating everything outlandish (or 
foreign), could effect nothing without foreign aid. All 
they accomplished was done by treachery and force of 
numbers. The indigenous soldier received no pay, there- 
fo -e he robbed. . . . With respect to taxes there was no 
law, but the lieutenants extorted what they could, and 
took bribes for remissness. The condition of the lower 
class of the Russians was miserable from four causes 
slavery ; from the multiplicity of races ; through the weight 


of imposts ; the number of festival days, which are consumed 
in debauchery. Laws are unknown, and the peasants, who 
must labour five days of the week for their lords, have 
only the sixth and seventh to themselves." 


THE SCOTS IN RUSSIA. (Continued). 

The Gordons of Auchintoul and Auchleuchries Marshal 
Ogilvie Goron and Mazeppa, etc. The Battle of Pultowa 
Marshal Keith and his Scottish comrades. 

THE arrival in Russia of the two Generals Gordon, of 
Marshal Ogilvie and others, tended still further to 
develop in the army the seeds of good discipline sown by 
their Scottish predecessors. 

The principal of these, General Alexander Gordon of 
Auchintoul, wrote a life of the Czar Peter the Great, to 
which he prefixed a memoir of himself. It was published at 
Aberdeen in 1755, and (according to the Nouvelle Biographic 
Generate) in German at Leipzig ten years subsequently. 

This officer was the son of Lewis Gordon of Auchintoul, 
Lord of Session in 1688 (whose predecessor was Lord 
Edmondston), by his wife Isobel Gray of Braik. He was 
born in 1669, and in 1688 entered, as a cadet, one of the 
ill-fated Scottish companies raised by desire of James VII 
to assist the French in the war in Catalonia. 

In these companies were Major Buchan of Auchmacoy, 
Irvine of Cults, Colonel Wauchop of Niddry, Graham of 
Braco (afterwards a Capuchin friar), and many other 
Scottish gentlemen of good family. 

In that service young Gordon carried a musket for two 


severe campaigns, and eventually was made a captain by 
Louis XIV. 

In 1693 lie went to Russia to push his fortune, and there 
met already high in position and rank his clansman, 
General Patrick Gordon of Auchleuchries, in Aberdeen- 
shire, the General-in-Chief of the whole Russian army, 
through whom he obtained his first commission therein as 
captain, we believe from the subsequent incident. 

He had been invited to a festive gathering, where several 
young Russian nobles were present, and as these were 
rather prone to insult all strangers (but more especially 
Scots), " when in liquor," he states, he soon heard dis- 
respectful language applied to foreigners, and particularly 
to his own countrymen. Gordon's blood took fire at once. 
The sword was not much used in Russian quarrels. With 
one blow of his clenched fist he levelled the most imper- 
tinent of these lords on the floor, and, in the general row 
that ensued, severely wounded five others. The affair 
reached the ears of Peter I, who sent for Captain Gordon, 
who went into his presence with vague fears of the knout 
or Siberia ; but his bearing so won the favour of the prince 
that the latter said : 

" Well, sir, your accusers have done you justice in ad- 
mitting that you soundly beat six of them, so I will also do 
you justice." 

A few minutes after he put in Gordon's hand his com- 
mission as Major a rank speedily followed by that of 

In 1696, when in his twenty-seventh year, he was 
despatched to Azak, or Azoflf, as it is now named, a city on 


the left bank of the Don, to relieve the first siege of that 
place by the Turks. He had under his orders 4,000 horse, 
20,000 infantry, and a strong body of Cossacks and 
Calmacks. He fulfilled his instructions ; levelled the 
fortifications, and inarched back to Moscow. (Life of 
Peter I.) 

In 1697 he married the daughter of General Patrick 
Gordon, the widow of Colonel Strasburg, a German. The 
General, who was a cadet of the Haddo family (now Lords 
of Aberdeen), had first entered the Swedish service in his 
eighteenth year, and was taken prisoner at the great battle 
and cnpture of Warsaw in 1055, and at the peace entered 
the Russian service. On the 30th of November, 1699, he 
died in his 66th year, as his son-in-law records, "much 
regretted by the zar and the whole nation. His Majesty 
visited him five times during his illness, was present at the 
moment he expired, and shut his eyes with his own hand ; 
he was buried in great state." 

Marshal Baron Ogilvie now began to take a prominent 
part in militaiy matters, and to him, says Baron Manstein, 
" the Russians are indebted for the first establishment of 
order and discipline in their army, especially in the infantry. 
As to the dragoons, it was General Ronne, a Courlander, 
who had charge of them. 

Ogilvie's grandfather had been in the Austrian service, 
under the Emperor Ferdinand, by whom he was created, 
for his bravery, a Baron of the Empire. From his youth 
he had served on the Rhine and in Hungary against the 
Turks. He was in his sixtieth year when he entered the 
service of Peter the Great, and commanded at Narva; 


"but," says Gordon, " he never could hit it off with Prince 
Mentschikoff, nor bear his insolence." 

On having 1,000 men added to his regiment, Alexander 
Gordon was sent to Tevere, 150 miles from Moscow, to 
have them disciplined, which he achieved personally and 
perfectly. He was then despatched in the course of the 
war against Charles XII on the expedition to Narva, 
which Ogilvie besieged on the 24th of May, 1700, and took 
by a remarkable ruse. Having taken prisoners a number 
of Swedes, he stripped them of their uniforms, which were 
dark blue faced with bright yellow. In these he clad 2,000 
of his Russian troops, and drew the Swedes thereby into 
an ambush where the river of Narva is broad and deep, 
and has a fall of eighteen feet over a ledge of rocks. There 
he cut to pieces 1,200 horse and foot, after which the city 
fell into his hands, and many more were put hors de combat, 
Gordon was detached to Piahagie with orders to build and 
garrison a fort there. 

Ogilvie next captured Ivanogorod, on the right bank of 
the Narva, 90 miles from St. Petersburg, and commanded 
the whole army in the Grodno, a province forming part of 
Lithuania ; he sent a detachment to capture the King of 
Sweden's baggage at Haza, en route to Wilna, and did so, 
killing 100 of the convoy and taking 40 prisoners ; but 
in November, 1700, near Narva, Charles XII, at the head 
of only 9,000 Swedes, obtained a victory over 39,000 
Russians, led, as some wrongly state, by Peter in 

Alexander Gordon was taken prisoner, but was ex- 
changed for the Swedish Colonel, Einshild ; after which he 


was made Brigadier-General and despatched upon all 
hazardous exploits. 

In January, 1708, he forced the Pass of Zeipts without 
the loss of a man, and blocked up the strong castle there. 
He then attacked the Swedes near Kysmark, routed them, 
and on the 13th June "marched into Royal Prussia, there 
to take orders fnm King Augustus." 

When Charles XII was about to cross the Disna, which 
issues from a lake in the district of Wilna, to form a junction 
with the troops of the Hetmann Mazeppa (whose name 
has been made so familiar to us by Byron), Peter the 
Great sent Brigadier Gordon with a battalion of 
Grenadiers, four columns of dragoons, and eight pieces 
of cannon to oppose the passage on the 21st October, 

At six o'clock, in the gloom of the evening, the Swedes 
made an attempt to cross the river on floats or rafts 
constructed of freshly felled trees; but Gordon's guns 
opened upon them, flashing redly out of the gloom of the 
dark pine forest, and they were repulsed, their exultant 
shouts of triumph giving place to shrieks of drowning and 
despair. The firing lasted till eleven P.M., when the 
ammunition of the Russians became expended, and Gordon 
reluctantly had to retire, in obedience to an order from 
Marshal Schermatoff, with the loss of 800 killed and 900 
wounded a strange disproportion ; but 2,000 Swedes were 
slain or drowned in the river. The passage of the latter 
was nevertheless effected, leaving Mazeppa free to pursue 
his march, " with a remnant of 6,000 Cossacks, being all 
that had escaped the swords of the Muscovites." Bad 


ammunition had been purposely and scantily sent to 
Gordon by his private enemy, Prince Mentschikoff. 

Gordon's next service was his expedition to oppose the 
Swedes under General Crassow, and the Poles and Lithua- 
nians in the interest of King Stanislaus. 

The battle of Pultowa soon followed 

" Dread Pultowa's day, 

When fortune left the royal Swede, 
Around a slaughtered army lay, 

No more to combat or to bleed. 
The power and glory of the war, 

Faithless as their vain votaries, men, 
Had passed to the triumphant jDzar, 

And Moscow's walls were safe again !" 

By that defeat, Chai'les, so long the terror of Europe, 
became a fugitive in Turkey, while the Czar restored 
Augustus to the throne of Poland, deposed Stanislaus, 
expelled the Swedes, and made himself master of Livonia, 
Ingria, and Carelia. (Voltaire, History of Russia.} 

Old Marshal Ogilvie now took service under Augustus, 
and, dying "in harness," in 1712, was solemnly interred at 

But, prior to that event, Gordon tells us that the 
Russians, 10,000 strong, came up with the Poles at 
Podkamian, in Black Prussia, defeated and pursued them 
to Limberg. He led the infantry on this occasion, and 
sent home to Scotland several Polish standards and other 

Next we find him in Transylvania with a powerful 
Russian column, assisting Prince Ragotzky against the 
Austrians, from whom he tells us he captured several tons 
of Tokay, which he also sent to Scotland we presume to 


his old ancestral house of Auchintoul, in the parish of 
Aberchirder, where it still stands. 

In 1711 he heard of his father's death, and returned 
home via Dantzig, Holland, and England, where he 
landed at Harwich. In the September of the same year 
he made additions to the house of Auchintoul, and pur- 
chased the barony of Laithers in the same country. 

In 1715 (according to Smollett's Hist.) he joined the 
Earl of Mar at Sheriffmuir, where he led the Western 
clans in battle, and, escaping with him after the conflict* 
was offered the rank of Lieutenant- General in the Spanish 
army ; but he declined, and, returning to Scotland, died in 
1751, in the eighty-second year of his age, and was buried 
near Marnock Kirk, where " no memorial marks the spot." 
(New Stat. Acct.) 

The portrait prefixed to his history shows him a long- 
faced yet handsome man, with a high wig, the ends of 
which curl down on his breast-plate and coat, which is 
worn open. 

The most distinguished engineer oflicer in the army of 
the Czar Peter was Captain Bruce of Buzion, a native of 
Fifeshire, who had been trained in the Prussian service. 
He served under Peter till 1 724, and was with him on his 
memorable Prussian expedition, and was at the battle of 
the Pruth. He died at his seat near Cupar (after having 
served in the campaign of 1745-6) in 1758. (Scots Mag.) 

Peter the Great died on the 8th February, 1727, and was 
succeeded by Peter II, son of Prince Alexis, his grandson 
by his first wife. 

It was in the year 1728 that James Francis Edward 


Keith, the future Field-Marshal, and ill-fated hero of 
Hochkirchen, entered the Russian service. The younger 
sou of William, ninth Earl Marischal, he was born in 1696 
in the now ruined Castle of Inverugie, a once splendid 
edifice at St. Fergus in Aberdeenshire. Destined for the 
law, he preferred the profession of arms, anil in the rising 
for King James in 1715 he was wounded at Sheriffmuir in 
his nineteenth year and had to fly to France, before which 
he had made great progress in the classics under the 
tutelage of the famous Bishop Keith. After joining in a 
futile attempt for the Stuarts in 1718, with other Scottish 
Cavaliers he entered the Spanish service, in which he 
remained till 1728, with a regiment of the Irish Brigade, 
commanded by the Duke of Ormond, in which he had 
been placed by the Duke of Leria, when, seeing advance- 
ment hopeless unless he turned Catholic, he came with a 
letter to the King, and in attendance upon Leria, the 
Ambassador to the Czarina, by whom he was appointed 
Lieutenant- Colonel of a newly raised corps of three 
battalions, called the Regiment of Ishmaelow (from a 
palace near Moscow, says Manstein), and was invested at 
the same time with the Order of the Black Eagle. Of 
this regiment Count Lowenwalde was Colonel, and 
Gustavus Biron, Major. It was in augmentation of the 
Foot Guards; and the author of Letters from Scandi- 
navia says that in Keith's battalion "the illustrious 
Romonzow served as a private soldier," to acquire a 
knowledge of his military duties. " The greatest part of 
the officers," adds Manstein, " were chosen among foreigners 
and the Livonian nobility. These regiments of Guards 


were raised as checks upon the old ones, and to overawe 
the people from sedition or insurrection." 

During all the twenty years of his service in Russia, 
James Keith was uniformly distinguished by his valour, 
good conduct, and humanity the latter being one of the 
most striking features of his character. 

Ocher Scotsmen came prominently forward about the 
same time among them Admiral Thomas Gordon and the 
Count de Balmaine. 

In 1738, when the Russian and Saxon armies invested 
Dantzig, in hope of securing the person of King Stanislaus, 
the town was strong, the garrison numerous, and, inspired 
by the presence of the French and Poles, made an 
obstinate defence ; and on the arrival of the Russian fleet 
under Admiral Gordon the siege was pressed with greater 
fury. Under its fire the city submitted to Augustus III 
as King of Poland ; Stanislaus fled to Prussia in the dis- 
guise of a peasant ; an amnesty was proclaimed, and the 
French prisoners of war were taken away in Gordon's 
ships. (Smollet's History.} 

In 1735 Colonel Ramsay was one of those officers who, 
with the Count de Bounival in the Turkish service, had 
been diciplining the Osmanli troops, thus causing much 
uneasiness in St. Petersburg. Catharine gave Ramsay 
and others such assurances of promotion in Russia that they 
joined her army, by the way of Holland, and Ramsay was 
commissioned as Major. " He took the name of Count de Bal- 
maine," says Manstein, "and distinguished himself on many 
occasions, insomuch that he rose to the rank of Colonel, and 
was killed in the action of Wilmanstrand." This was in 1 741. 


A writer in the Times, in 1857, stated that "he was a 
son of Viscount Balmaine, whose adherence to the Stuarts 
compelled him to quit Scotland" ; but gave no authority 
for this. 

In 1735, when the Empress sent 10,000 men to the 
Rhine to succour the Emperor Charles VI, Keith 
commanded as Lieutenant- General under the Irish veteran 
Marshal Lacy. They crossed Bohemia and reached the 
great river in June, and Europe generally was astonished 
at the good order and discipline these Muscovites ex- 

War was now resolved upon with the Turks, and in the 
army which began and accomplished the conquest of the 
Crimea were Generals Count Douglas, Leslie, Forman, 
Bruce, Stuart, Colonel Kamsay, Count de Balmaine, 
Johnston, and Lieutenant Innes (who distinguished himself 
at the capture of Otchakow), all Scotsmen of whom in 
their places. 

It was agreed that a Russian army, under Lac^, should 
march against the city of Azoff to punish the Tartars of the 
Crimea for their outrages, while another, under the Count 
de Munich, should penetrate to the Ukraine, and Secken- 
dorf with the Austrians should enter Se rvia. 

In those days the Crimean Khan, a powerful prince, 
paid tribute to the Sultan, and his territory, besides the 
noble monuments of the Genoese, contained many great 

Lacy came in sight of Azoff on the 15th May, 1736. 
Situated on an eminence, it is in a district of dangerous 
swamps, bleak and barren ; but had a castle of great 

o 2 


strength. In the attack Lacy was nobly seconded by the 
column of Count Douglas, particularly on the 14th June, 
when a frightful encounter took place at the palisades, 
which the Tartars and Turks defended by bullets, arrows, 
tlarts, and stones for twelve consecutive days, after which 
the town was taken, and the Bashaw marched out with 
3,400 men and 2,233 women, surrendering 167 pieces of 
cannon and 291 Christian slaves. 

Lacy next forced the Lines of Perecop, till then deemed 
impregnable, and Count Balmaine stormed Kaffa, where 
the beautiful mosques and minarets were converted into 
magazines or torn down, and the stately fountains and 
aqueducts destroyed for the sake of their leaden pipes. 

Bakhtchissari, within 22 miles of Sebastopol, next fell, 
and Ockzakow, where Innes led the stormers, and where 
11,000 Russian regulars and 3,000 Cossacks were killed, 
and Keith was highly complimented for his valour by 
Count Munich (Manstein, p. 157), but received a dreadful 
wound in the thigh. It was by his valour chiefly that the 
place was captured, and then his humanity was grandly 
conspicuous, for while the furious Muscovites were san- 
guinary in their ferocity, he sought to check it. He 
rescued a child, six years of age, from the hands of one 
whose sabre was uplifted to cleave the helpless creature as 
she endeavoured to creep out from the rubbish and dead that 
had fallen over her. Her father, a Turkish Pasha of high 
position, had fallen in the siege, and she was now an 
orphan. Unable to protect her himself, Keith sent her to 
his bi-other, the loyal, yet attainted, Earl Marischal, who 
brought her up as a Christian, treated her as a daughter 



of his own, " and, as she grew up," says Lord de Bos, 
" gave her charge of his household, where she did the 
honours of the table, and behaved herself with great pro* 
pi-iety and discretion." 

THE SCOTS IN RUSSIA.. (Continued.) 

Keith in the Ukraine Leslie slain Keith and Prince 
Cantemier Made Governor of the Ukraine Bahnaine 
slain Keith in Finland Quells a mutiny at Wybourg. 

BEFORE referring again to Keith we may state that during 
its stay in the Crimea the Russian army ravaged the 
whole country. During the winters of 1736 and 1737 the 
Tartars, thirsting for vengeance, burst into the Ukraine, 
despite all the precautions of Munich, giving towns to the 
flames, and carrying off above 1,000 Christian slaves. 

The defence of the Ukraine was assigned to General 
Keith, with the column of troops that had served with him 
on the Rhine. It had recrossed Bohemia and Poland, and 
in September, 1736, was in winter quarters in Kiow. 

In the February of the next year, on the 24th, some 
thousand Tartars crossed the Dnieper on the ice, near 
the small town of Kilberdna, where a brigade of Keith's, 
under Major- General Leslie, was posted. Finding that 
the Tartars had passed his outposts, he gathered 200 
bayonets to attack them. The Tartars, supposing this was 
the advanced guard of a large body, fell back, but on 
learning their mistake they returned ; a conflict ensued, 
and Leslie, with nearly his whole detachment, perished. No 
prisoners were taken but his son, Captain Leslie, who 


served as his aide-de-camp, and twenty men. Penetrating 
further now, the Tartars gave all to fire and sword for 
forty-eight hours, till overtaken by a column of 2,000 
cavalry sent by Keith, who cut down 300 and retook all 
their booty. 

On the 25th of July, 1737, in the engagement near 
Karasu-Bazaar, in a valley 36 miles from Kaffa now the 
great mart of the Crimea for fruit and wine Lieutenant- 
General Count Douglas, who led the advanced guard, con- 
sisting of 6,000 dragoons and infantry, had orders to seize 
the town, while Marshal Lacy followed with the main body. 
Douglas was repulsed by 15,000 Turks, who held an en- 
trenched camp above the town ; but, on being reinforced by 
only two regiments of cavalry, he returned to the attack 
again and captured it, sabre a la main, after an hour's con- 
flict, and won a vast amount of plunder. 

In the army which opened the campaign of April, 1738, 
against the Turks, the Quartermaster General, Fermor, a 
Scotsman, led the vanguard, consisting of seven regiments 
of infantry, one of hussars, and 2,000 Cossacks, which he 
marched in hollow square to examine the position of the 
enemy in the neighbourhood of the Dniester, where the 
Osmanli troops were defeated; and now everywhere the 
rapid successes of the Russian arms roused the Court of 
Vienna, which was bound by treaty to assist the Porte. 
But the Russians still pressed on towards the shores of the 
Black Sea, and prophecies were as usual propagated that 
the period fatal to the Crescent had arrived. (Mem. de 

In 1738 Major William M'Kenzie of Conansby entered 


the Russian army as Colonel under the Empress Anne, but 
returned to the British service on the war breaking out 
with Spain, and died in 1770. 

In the year 1739 occurred what was termed "the affair 
of L D rince Caritemier," in which Keith was concerned. 

The Count de Munich having formed a regiment of 
Wallachians when the new campaign opened, gave com- 
mand of it to Prince Cantemier, a near relation of one of 
the same name, who had joined Peter I in 1711. The 
Prince, en route to Russia, passed by the way of Brody, a 
town of Galicia, the residence of Count Potosky, Crown- 
General of Poland, and consequently averse to Russian 
interests. He threw the Prince into a loathsome vault, 
and offered to deliver him up to the Porte tidings of 
which the Prince contrived to send to Kiow, where Keith 
commanded. The latter instantly sent an officer to demand 
the release of the Prince ; but Potosky denied all know- 
ledge of the matter. 

Keith threatened to enforce his demands with the sword, 
on which he was set at liberty and escorted to the frontier 
of the Ukraine : and soon after took vengeance upon his 
enemy, whose possessions he ravaged with fire and sword 
at the head of his Wallachian regiment. " He committed 
the most horrid cruelties," says Manstein, " and could he 
have got hold of Count Potosky, there is no doubt but 
that he would have made him undergo the same punish- 
ment to which the Count had meant to expose him." 

The general progress of these wars lies apart from our 
narrative, and before the end of 1709, by the pacific 
disposition of their Christian allies, the Turks, so re- 


cently devoted to destruction, obtained an advantageous 

The following year saw General Keith made Governor 
of the Ukraine that vast region which lies south-east of 
Russian Poland. " He had just returned from France," 
says Manstein, " where he had been for the cure of his 
wounds. He had orders to repair to Glogan as Governor, 
where he did not reside one year; but in that time he 
despatched more business than his predecessors had done 
in ten. The Ukraine received great benefit from the mild- 
ness of his government and the order which he established 
in the administration of affairs. He began to introduce, 
even among the Cossacks, a sort of discipline, which till 
then had been unknown; but he had not time to complete 
that work, for, the war coming on with Sweden, he was 
recalled. When he quitted Glogan the whole country 
regretted him." 

In April, 1741, there died at Cronstadt, Thomas Gordon, 
Admiral of all Russia. (Scots Magazine, 1741.) 

In 1741, when the preparations for war began, the 
Grand Duchess Anne removed Lacy and Keith to St. 
Petersburg, and it was in Finland they were to act 
offensively, as soon as the field was taken. 

The second column, to be commanded by the Prince of 
Hesse-Homburg, was to remain in Ingria. Others were to 
be formed in Livonia and Esthonia, to cover the coasts 
under Count Lowendal, as the Russian fleet had been in a 
different condition since Gordon sailed from Dantzig. 

Under General Keith the first camp was formed on the 
22nd July, 1741, four miles from St. Petersburg. It consisted 


of five regiments of infantry, three of dragoons, and several 
independent companies of grenadiers, all of which were 
reviewed four days after by Marshal Lacy. During this 
ceremony the sound of cannon was heard in St. Petersburg, 
announcing the birth of a princess, who was named 
Catherine. Keith, accompanied by the Count de Balmaine, 
now began his march, and on the 24th August declared the 
war against Sweden was then inaugurated, as it was the 
birthday of the Emperor. At the head of each great 
battalion he made a harangue, exhorting the soldiers to do 
their duty and uphold the glory of the Russian arms. 

Sweden was at that time rent by political schism. One 
party, called the Hats, was ever for war, but remained at 
peace when Russia was pressed by other Powers ; and 
now, when the latter was at peace and Sweden had but 
few troops in Finland, that power was ready and ripe for 
war, and scorned the pacific advice of what was named the 
Nightcap party. 

The day after war was declared, Keith again marched 
through Wybourg and encamped near the bridge of Abo. 
All the troops had fifteen days' rations, and, on a junction 
being formed with the column of General Uxkul, three 
regiments were left to hold Abo, an important town in 
Finland, and the advance began again, Lacy commanding 
the whole, towards Wilmanstrand, a fortified village on the 
south bank of Lake Saima, where Major- General Wrangel 
was in position at the head of 4,000 Swedes, while 4,000 
more, under General Buddenbrog, were six miles distant. 

The march lay through thick woods, deep marshes, and 
rocky defiles, when a false alarm was given one night that 


nearly proved disastrous. The Russians fired on each 
other in the dark, and many officers and men were 
killed. " The Generals, Lacy and Keith, ran a great risk of 
being slain in this false alarm," says Baron Manstein. 
" They had small tents pitched for them between the lines 
which several balls had quite gone through, and about 200 
of the dragoon horses, taking fright at the fire, broke 
loose from the picquets and ran through the highroad to 
Wilmanstrand. " 

Buddenbrog's column, on hearing the firing, pushed on 
to the latter place, believing it was attacked, and by 4 a.m. 
on the 2nd September the Russians were in front of the 
position, which was defended by palisades, earthworks, and 

When the conflict began on the 3rd, the Swedish artillery 
did much execution among the attacking Russian grena- 
diers, on which Keith ordered two fresh battalions, those 
of Ingermaland and Astrakan, under General Manheim, 
to support them, and, on receiving a volley from them at 
sixty paces, the Swedes gave way. The position was 
Carried by 5 p.m., the Swedes routed, and their own guns 
turned on them and Wilmanstrand. 

Nearly the whole of the Swedes were taken prisoners, 
with all their cannon and colours. The Russian losses were 
529 killed and 1,837 wounded. Among the former there 
fell, gallantly leading their columns, Colonels Lockman and 
the Count de Balmaine. 

The descendants of the latter are still in Russia. When 
Napoleon was at St. Helena in 1817, the then Count de 
Balmaine was there as a Russian commissioner the 


descendant of the captor of Kaffa. (See O'Mcara's Napo- 
leon in Exile, 2 vols.) 

The command of Wilmanstrand was assigned to General 
Fermor (or Farmer), with two regiments of infantry, till 
the place was razed to the ground, and its inhabitants were 
marched into Russia. 

The army now returned into Russian Finland, and Lacy 
returned to St. Petersburg, leaving Keith in full com- 
mand, and he carried on the close of the campaign b} - 
skirmishes, in which his troops were always victorious, till 
the 8th November, when he went into winter quarters. 

Intelligence, however, was soon sent to him that the 
Swedes were about to invade Russian Finland, and after 
repairing to St. Petersburg for special orders and to attend 
a Council of War, he left it on the 4th December to have 
his troops in readiness, and on the night of the 5th the 
great revolution took place which placed on the throne the 
Princess Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Peter the Great. 

In the execution of the plot which brought that startling 
event to pass, Manstein states that the first step of the 
conspirators was to seize the officer commanding the 
grenadiers in the imperial barracks, adding that " his 
name was Grows, a Scotsman, after which they took an 
oath of fidelity to the Princess." The name given is 
perhaps " Grieve," misspelt. 

In 1742, when hostilities began again with Sweden, in 
the army assembled at Wybourg in the end of May, con- 
sisting of 36,000 men of all arms (including 10,000 in 
the galleys), two brigades were led by Scotsmen Count 
Bruce and Major- General Brown. A dangerous mutiny 


broke out in the Guards, and a cry was set up that they 
would massacre all foreign officers and be led by none but 

Finding that no officer would ventur: near them, Keith, 
without a moment's hesitation, drew his sword and flung 
himself among the mutineers, and, seizing a leader with his 
left hand, ordered a priest to confess him, that he might 
shoot him on the spot at the time, commanding his aide-de- 
camp and some officers to seize or cut down others. On 
this, the mob of soldiery dispersed and rushed to their 
tents. " Keith," we are told, "ordered a call of the rolls 
at the head of the camp, that the absent should be taken 
into custody and information issued against all who were 
present at the meeting. As neither the Horse Guards nor 
the country regiments were concerned in this rising, they 
had taken arms to repel the insolence of the two regiments 
of Foot Guards, if they could not be otherwise appeased. If 
it had not been for the spirited resolution of General Keith 
this revolt would have spread far, as no Russian officer 
would have undertaken to oppose the rage of the soldiery." 
The complaints of the latter were not without justice, and 
their hatred of foreigners rose from the fact that all the 
best posts were given to Scots, Germans, and other 
strangers; but now the knout, mutilation, and Siberia 
were the doom of all that were brought before the court- 
martial of General Romanzow. 

After the final reduction of Finland, General Keith was 
appointed Governor, and held Abo, the capital, with a 
strong force, while twenty-one galleys and two prahms 
guarded the coast. 


In the war that broke out in 1743, in connection with 
the Duke of Holstein's succession to the crown of Sweden, 
Major- General Stuart had a brigade under Lacy on board 
the sea squadron. It consisted of three regiments of 
infantry and three companies of grenadiers, and Stuart's 
vessels carried a red ensign. 

The Swedes continued to burn all the timber which 
Keith had amassed on the Isle of Aland to build war- 
galleys, and, after many operations, Marshal Lacy effected 
a junction with the former, after he had beaten the Swedish 
galleys in a sea-fight in July. 

Keith, in his new rdle of a naval commander, had left 
Haugow on the 18th of May, his galleys towed by prahms, 
as the wind was light, and on the 22rid came in sight of the 
Swedish squadron in Yungfern Sound, but could not give 
orders for engaging till the 29th, owing to the contrary 
winds that set in. Then the Swedes bore away, and 
Keith's galleys took up the station they had quitted. 

Several minor engagements between Keith's galleys and 
those of the Swedes and the land batteries of the latter 
took place till the 1st of June, when the Swedes, whom he 
had always worsted, bore away and vanished in the night. 

Peace followed in 1 743, and Keith resumed his command 
at Abo, and to bring off the Russian troops under Stuart, 
Lapouchin, and others. 

THE SCOTS IN EUSSIA. (Continued.} 

Keith at Stockholm His Embassies Joins the Prussian Army 
The Gottorp Globe General Fermor Greig, " the 
Father of the Russian Navy" Admiral Mackenzie, and 

A QUARREL having ensued with the Dalecarlians, and 
when Keith, on duty at Stockholm, had one of his aide- 
de-camps insulted (as a Danish officer) because he wore a 
scarlet uniform, Keith received orders to repair to Sweden, 
at the head of 11,000 men, to support the interests of the 
Prince of Holstein and act as ambassador. 

" He suffered much in his passage with the troops under 
his orders from the cold and storms he had to undergo 
before he reached the coast of Sweden," says his comrade 
Manstein ; " and the Russian galleys, which never used to 
keep the sea later than the beginning of September, were 
obliged to remain on it till the latter end of November." 
Any other man than Keith would hardly have been able 
to execute this expedition. He had not only to struggle 
with the violence of the storms and the piercing cold, but 
with the officers of the marine, who were often representing 
the impossibility of proceeding in so severe a season. 
But Keith, who had served a long time in Spain, where he 
had seen the galleys keep the sea in all weathers, and who, 


besides, knew better than any of the officers that served in 
the squadron how much could be done with this part of 
the fleet in any climate with a good will, continued to be 
single in his opinion for proceeding. 

He remained with his column in Sweden until 1744, 
when, matters being amicably adjusted, he returned with 
the fleet and troops to Revel on the 13th of August. 

Keith served the Russian Crown in many important 
embassies, and a pretty well-known anecdote in connection 
with one of his last, on the termination of a war between 
the Russians and the Turks, is recorded in the Memoirs 
and Papers of Sir Andrew Mitchell. 

The commisioners to treat of a peace were General 
Keith and the Turkish Grand Vizier. These two person- 
ages, he relates, met, with the interpreters of the Russ and 
Turkish between them. When all was concluded, they 
arose to separate. The General made his bow, hat in hand, 
and the turbanned Vizier his salaam ; but the latter, when 
the ceremonies were over, turned suddenly, and coming up 
to Keith, took him warmly by the hand, and with a broad 
Scottish accent, declared that " it made him unco happy, 
noo that they were sae far frae haine, to meet wi' a 
countryman in his exalted station." 

Keith stared with astonishment, and, in answer to his 
exclamation of surprise, the Grand Vizier gave this ex- 
planation : 

" My faither was the bellman o' Kirkcaldy, in Fife, and I 
remember to have seen you and your brother the Earl 
occasionally passing." 

But, with all the honours he had won in Russia, Keith 


began to deem service then only a species of splendid 
slavery, and, leaving the Muscovite court in 1747, he en- 
tered the army of Frederick the Great of Prussia, where we 
shall meet him again. 

Such was the career of one of the many brilliant soldiers 
of whose services loyalty to their native kings and the 
rnal -influence of England deprived their mother country. 

In 1748 we read of a Scottish artisan named Scott being 
more peacefully employed in repairing the famous globe of 
Gottorp after it was burnt in that year. He made the 
skeleton of another, on which he was seven years at work^ 
It was deemed the largest globe in the world, and had 
been first made for the Duke of Holstein in 1664. The 
Castle of Gottorp, though in Denmark, belonged to Duke 
Carl-Peter, Emperor of Russia in 1762, and when bestowed 
on Russia, the enormous globe was conveyed on sledges to 
St. Petersburg through the woods of Esthonia and Finland, 
where trees were felled to facilitate its passage. (Stcehlin's 
Monuments of Peter the Great.) 

During the war in Silesia, in 1758, the Russian army wag 
commanded by General Fermor, who was wounded at the 
battle of Zorndorf, fought with the Prussians, and sent to 
General Dohna a trumpeter asking a three days' armistice 
to bury the dead and take care of the wounded, " presenting 
to his Prussian Majesty," says Smollett, "the humble 
request of General Brown, who was much weakened with 
loss of blood, that he might have a passport to a place 
where he could find such accommodation as his situation 

In answer to this Count Dohna gave General Fermor to 



understand that, as the King of Prussia remained master 
of the field, he would bury the dead and protect the 
wounded ; but granted the request of General Brown. 
" Fermor was of Scottish extraction," adds Smollett, "but 
General Brown was actually a native of North Britain." 
(Hist. Eng., vol. vi.) 

In the preceding June General Fermor had been created 
a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. 

In the Caledonian Mercury of the same year, under date 
of Versailles, 5th March, we read that " the Sieur M'Kenzie- 
Douglas, to whom we owe the restoration of a good un- 
derstanding between our court and that of Russia, has 
obtained a warrant for 60,000 livres and a pension of 4,000 

And, as the Scots were not behind in the arts of peace 
in Russia, we find in 1 764 that when the Empress Catherine 
II invited several foreigners of skill and talent to prepare 
plans for the improvement of St. Petersburg, those received 
most favourably by her were presented by " Mr. Gilchrist, 
a Scotsman, in consequence of which a valuable present has 
been ordered him by the Empress ; and several wharves, 
docks, storehouses, and public streets approved of in his 
plans are to be carried out under the aforesaid gentleman's 
direction." (Edinburgh Advert., vol. ii.) 

In the same year we find that John Ochterlony (a name 
familiar in recent Russian annals), a native of Montrose, 
was an eminent merchant at Rigi. 

In 1764, Sir Samuel Greig, who was Governor of Cron- 
stadt, Admiral of all the Russias, and became known as 
the father and founder of the Russian navy, entered the 


service of the Empress Catherine II with many other 
Scotsmen, among whom was one from the same native 
place, Iverkeithing, the famous old Commodore Roxburgh. 
In Russia he bore the name of Samuel Carlovitch Greig, 
as his father Charles Greig was skipper of a small ship, 
the Thistle, of Inverkeithing, trading with St. Petersburg. 
(Edinburgh Courant, 1761.) 

In that ancient Fifeshire seaport Samuel Greig was born 
in 1 735, and was educated by the parish dominie, who was 
alive in ] 794. Entering the British navy, *he was a 
lieutenant in the fleet of Hawke, when blockading Brest 
in 1759 ; and, subaltern though his rank, he distinguished 
himself in the great battle off Cape Quiberon, and in that 
war, during which we took or destroyed 64 sail of French 
ships, including 27 of the line. 

He next served at the capture of several of the West 
India Islands, but the provincial prejudices of the English 
rendered the time unfavourable for Scotsmen or Irishmen 
rising in the British service. Thus, when, during Lord 
Bute's administration, the court of St. Petersburg re- 
quested that a few of our naval officers, who were dis- 
tinguished for ability, might be sent to improve the 
Russian fleet, Greig, with several others, gladly volunteered, 
and had his rank as lieutenant confirmed, his only stipula- 
tion being that he might return as such to the British 
service when he chose ; and we are told that he rapidly 
raised the Russian naval service to a degree of respect- 
ability it had never attained before. 

In the same year he joined, Captain Douglas was ap- 
pointed commodore of the Russian fleet and senior rear- 



admiral ; and in 1768 we note the death at Cronstadt, 
in his 23rd year only, of Captain William Gordon of 
Cowbairdie, Aberdeenshire, commodore of a ship in the 
Russian navy. 

When war broke out between the Empress and the 
Sultan, the partial breaking up of the ice in the Baltic 
enabled a Russian fleet to put to sea for the Mediterranean. 
Of that fleet Greig was commodore, under Alexis, Count 
OrlofF, and his zeal soon led to his promotion to the rank 
of flag-officer. In 1770, Mr. Gordon was Director-General 
of the Imperial dockyard at Rigi and Knight of St. 
Alexander Newsoki. In 1776 he was presented with 1,000 
Livonian peasants and 30,000 roubles. On the 14th 
January, 1770, one squadron of the armament under the 
Admiral, John Elphinstone, consisting of a 70-gun ship, 
two of 60 guns each, and 70 others arrived at Spithead on 
its way to the Archipelago. This officer, a cadet of the 
Scottish house of Elphinstone, was then a captain of the 
British navy. He had a claim to the attainted title of 
Balmerino, which was also advanced by his grandson, 
Captain Alexander Elphinstone, R.N., and noble of Livonia. 

The other squadron, consisting of 22 sail of the line, had 
reached Minorca so early as the 4th January, and before 
the end of July the Russian fleet had twice defeated the 
Turkish on one occasion Elphinstone encountering thrice 
his force, sinking eight ships ; on the other, with nineteen, 
overcoming Giafar Bey with twenty-three. 

A curious, gossipy anecdote is connected with this war. 
Dr. Lauchlan Taylor, minister of Larbert, who in those 


days enjoyed the reputation of being a prophet, published 
in 1770 a book, in which he stated the strife then waging 
would end in the total destruction of Turkey ; and the 
Empress, under whose notice the work was brought by 
some of the many Scots in her service, had the prophecy 
translated, freely circulated among her troops, and great 
bets were laid on the fulfilment of it. 

In the great battle of the 6th July, Greig, Admiral 
Mackenzie, and other Scottish officers in the flee.t rendered 
good and gallant service ; and in the Scots Magazine for that 
year the carnage of the scene is well depicted by the pen 
of a Lieutenant Mackenzie, then serving on board Her 
Imperial Majesty's ship Switostoff. Orloff was not much 
of a sailor, so the mauling of the Turks fell chiefly to the 
share of Admiral Elphinstone and Commodore Greig, who 
compelled them to slip their cables and run under their 
batteries between Scio and the coast of Anadoli. Under 
the care of the two Scottish commanders two fire-ships 
were prepared to enter the harbour, covered by a part of 
the squadron ; but leaders were required for this perilous 
service, and at once three officers, all Scotsmen Com- 
mander Greig, Lieutenant Mackenzie, and Captain-Lieu- 
tenant Drysdale (sometimes called Dugdale) volunteered. 
Though the latter was abandoned by his crew at the 
supreme crisis, the service was achieved. The fire-ships 
were exploded with dreadful effect, and the whole Turkish 
fleet, including twelve ships of the line, armed with 566 
guns, was destroyed by Grieg, while 6,000 Turks were 
shot, burned, or drowned. 

By his boats he towed out La JBarbarocine, of 64 guns, 


bombarded the town, and rescued 400 Christian slaves. 
For these services he was promoted to the rank of rear- 
admiral, with 2,160 roubles per annum, and his two 
brother officers were made captains. His ship was named 
the Three Primates. 

The Sienr Eutherford, another Scottish adventurer, who 
was commissary of the Russian court, sold at Leghorn all 
the prizes which were taken by the fleet. (Scots Mag,} 

From the volume quoted we learn that a dispute took 
place between Count OrlofF, the nominal commander-in- 
chief, and Admiral Elphinstone, whom he ordered to go on 
a secret expedition, "which the latter thought proper to 
decline ; in consequence of this a great altercation ensued 
between them. Count Orloff put him under arrest, and 
sent an express to inform the Empress of what he had done." 
She recalled him, and he left the Russian service in disgust, 
taking a farewell of Catherine, clad in his uniform as a 
captain of the British navy. 

The fleet meanwhile was sweeping the shores of the 
Archipelago, under Greig, Mackenzie, Drysdale, Brodie, and 
others, led by Admiral Spirifcoff. Sinope, Giurgevo, and 
other places on the Turkish coast were bombarded or 
taken ; and in a conflict at the latter on 31st October, 1771, 
among the slain appears the name of David Gordon, a 
landed proprietor of Galloway and lieutenant of our 67th 
Foot, a volunteer on board the fleet. 

Greig destroyed the magazines formed for the supply 
of Constantinople, bombarded Negroponte, swept the 
coast of Macedonia, beat down Cavallo in Roumelia, 
and destroyed all the stores at Salonica ; and in a ten 


hours' fight off Scio, 10th October, 1775, he routed or 
took a whole Turkish squadron, but had a narrow es- 
cape, as a ball struck one of the points from St. George's 
cross on his left breast. His sailors were repulsed, how- 
ever, at Cyprus, and four sacks of their scalps, salted, were 
sent to the Sultan from Stanchio, the ancient Cos. 

"In the preceding month Rear- Admiral Mackenzie 
commanded the Russian fleet in the Black Sea {Edinburgh 
Advt., vol. xl.), and from him the place in the Crimea 
called Khouter Mackenzie takes its name, as it was a 
plantation of timber he formed to furnish the dockyards 
at Actiare, now Sebastopol, which he first fortified. The 
place then " consisted of two houses, a wooden barrack, a 
military storehouse," says Slade, in his Travels in Turkey, 
etc. " Our countrymen," he adds, " Admirals Mackenzie, 
Priestman, Mason, Mercer, and three Greigs have all 
hoisted their flags in the Black Sea." There were also 
Admiral Tait and four captains Denniston, whose head 
was shot off ; Marshall, drowned when leading his board- 
ers ; Miller and Aikin, who each lost a leg in action. 
It lies on the highroad from Simpheropol, and our troops 
passed through it on their march to Balaclava after the 
battle on the Alma. 

From the scarce memoirs of a military adventurer of 
dubious character, a native of Dumbarton, named Major 
Semple Lisle, who once served in our 15th Foot was 
wounded at Rhode Island and joined the Russian service 
under Catherine, we may make two extracts with reference 
to 1784. 

" At Moscow I met several cartloads of English mid- 


shipmen, who, being thrown out of employment by the 
conclusion of the American war, had entered the Russian 
service. They were under the care of a sergeant and two 
marines, and were going to join Admiral Mackenzie on the 
Black Sea," 

" From Karasu-bazaar I was sent on military duty to 
Actiare, where I met my old friend Admiral Mackenzie 
with his fleet. While I was at Actiare, Mackenzie and 
myself received the compliments of some of the Tartar 
chiefs of that country, together with the present each of a 
horse. Mine was richly caparisoned, but his was almost 
covered with silver. The saddle was of purple cloth, 
studded over with silver nails ; from each side depended a 
stirrup of the same metal made in the fashion of the 
country, the size and shape of the sole of the foot." 

In this year, 1784, another Captain Mackenzie joined 
the Russian service the laird of Redcastle, in Forfar- 
shire. He had been tried at the Old Bailey for illegally 
executing a convict at Black Town ; and, after serving 
fc r some time in Russia, was killed in a duel near Constan- 
tinople. (Kay's Portraits.) 

Other Scots of higher position came to Russia about this 
period. Among them John Robison, LL.D., the distin- 
guished mechanical philosopher, a native of Stirlingshire 
(Nimmo's Hist.), recommended as a fit person to superin- 
tend the navy, in 1770 was appointed Inspector- General 
of the Marine Cadet Corps of Nobles at Cronstadt, with the 
rank of colonel, an office which he relinquished in 1773 
on becoming Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh ; Dr. Rogerson, who was appointed 


counsellor of state and court physician in 1 776, with a 
pension of 4,000 roubles yearly, and returned in 1815 to hia 
native district, where he purchased property to the value 
of 130,000; and Dr. Guthrie, a cadet, of the family of 
Halkerton, in Fifeshire (and nephew of William Guthrie, 
a well-known miscellaneous writer employed by Cave), 
who was appointed personal physician to the empress. 

Dr. Rogerson's father was tenant of the half of Loch- 
broom, Dumfriesshire, and there he was born. The other 
half was rented by William Haliday, whose son * Matthew 
was also one of her Imperial Majesty's physicians. (Old 
Stat. Account Scot.) 

THE SCOTS IN "RUSSIA. (Continued.) 

The Greig family The Scots colony in the Caucasus The 
Baron M. Von Macleay and his writings. 

To Major Semple Lisle, who -was A. D. C. to Prince 
Potemkin, and who, when in Russia, was mixed up in a 
disreputable way with the famous Duchess of Kingston, 
was assigned at this time the training and command of a 
Corsican corps, 250 strong, with which he went to the 
Crimea in 1783 ; and in his memoirs he gives himself the 
credit of inaugurating useful changes in the Russian 
uniform, which he describes as being green, lined and faced 
with red ; the coat long and reaching to the calf of the leg, 
with long boots and small hats, to which the soldiers added 
flannel ear-covers in cold weather. He suggested also the 
cropping of the hair, and the fixing of the bayonet only 
when about to charge. 

In the winter of 1773 Admiral Greig returned to 
St. Petersburg, and made every exertion to fit out a more 
efficient squadron for the Dardanelles ; and, sailing with it 
from Cronstadt, took with him his wife on board his ship, 
the Issidorum, of 74 guns. In the spring of 1774 the 
rendezvous of the squadrons of Greig and Spiritoff was at 
Port Naussa, in the channel between Paros and the rocky 
coast of Naxos ; but now Catherine made peace with the 


Turks, stipulating that the Crimea was to be ceded for ever 
to the rule of its own Khans or Sultans. 

Greig returned to Russia with the fleet, and spent all the 
last years of his life in remodelling its discipline, training 
cadets, and earning for himself the endearing sobriquet of 
the " Father of the Russian Navy." For these and his other 
services he was made Governor of Cronstadt, Admiral of 
the whole Empire, with the orders of St. Andrew, St. 
George, and, in 1782, St. Anne of Holstein, with. 7,000 
roubles per annum. His great assistant was his country- 
man Gordon, Director-General of the Dockyards, who at 
that time was constructing two 100-gunships, three of 90, 
six of 70, and ten 40-gun frigates all of a form and 
beauty hitherto unknown in Russia. The chief engineer 
and naval architect was then another Scotsman, Andrew 
Watson, who died in 1799. 

The Empress dined with Greig on board his ship in 
July, 1786, accompanied by Counts Bruce and Galitzin ; 
and when he hoisted the Imperial standard nine hundred 
guns thundered at once from the ramparts of Cronstadt, 

He once more prepared a great fleet to sail for the Black 
Sea, against the Crimea, but its Khan the last descendant 
of Gengiz submitted, and his territories became an in- 
tegral portion of Russia. 

In 1788 Greig put to sea against the Swedes, after great 
discontent and threatened resignation had occurred among 
the Scottish officers of his fleet, owing to a false rumour 
that Paul Jones was to be taken into the Imperial service ; 
and he fought his great battle with the fleet of the Duke 
of Sudermania and Count Wachdmeister on the 17th of 


July in the Narrows of Kalkboder. He had thirty-three 
sail in all, while the enemy had fifteen of the line carrying 
from sixty to seventy guns, eight frigates armed with 
twenty -four pounders, and eight others. The Swedes were 
defeated; Greig's loss was 319 killed and 666 wounded. 
" I must say, on this occasion," contains his despatch to 
the Empress, " that I never saw a battle maintained with 
more spirit and courage on both sides." He signed it 
" Sam. Carlovitch Greig." 

On Count Wachdmeister yielding up his sword, Greig 
returned it, saying : 

" I will never be the man to deprive so brave and 
worthy an officer of his sword , I beseech you to receive 

He next blockaded the Duke of Sudermania in Sveaborg; 
but his health became impaired now, and on the 15th of 
October, 1788, he expired on board the ship Rotislaw, 
which had 1< st 200 men in the late battle. 

His funeral was (ondacted with a pomp and splendour 
never Lefor j teen in Russia ; every officer attending it 
received a gold ring from the Empress, and his monument 
records, with truth, that "he was a man no less illustrious 
for courage and naval skill than for piety, benevolence, and 
every private virtue. 

The estate in Livonia bestowed upon him by the Emperor 
of Germany is still in the possession of his descendants, 
whose names have often appeared in the public prints. 

His son John died in China in 1793. Another son 
became Sir Alexis Greig, admiral of the Russian fleet, 
privy councillor, and Knight of all the Imperial Orders. 


He studied at the High School of Edinburgh under tho 
Rector Adam from 1783 to 1785, and then served as a 
volunteer on board H.M.S. Culloden, under Admiral 

When a captain, he and another Scotsman, Captain 
Brown, were involved in some trouble by the wreck of the 
Imperial frigate Archangel, commanded by the latter in 
1797. In the following year, in the squadron off the Texel, 
he commanded the Ratisvan, 64 guns ; and Captain Robert 
Crown, said to be a Scot, had the Utislaw, 74. (Edinburgh 
Herald.} In 1801 he was banished to Siberia for a time, 
in consequence of boldly remonstrating with the Emperor 
Paul for his severity to some British naval prisoners ; but 
in 1828 he was in full command of the Russian fleet at the 
sieges of Varna and Anapa, whither he had sailed from 
Sebastopol with forty vessels eight being of the line 
acting in conjunction with the troops under Prince 
Mentschicoff for three months by sea and land. During 
these operations the Emperor was his guest on board the 
Ville de Paris, which had the Diplomatic Chancery and 
1,300 persons under her flag. (Slade's Travels.} He founded 
the great astronomical observatory at Nicolaeff, where 
Captain Samuel Moffat, of the Imperial navy, died in 1821. 
In 1837 (according to Spencer's Travels'), on being made a 
privy councillor, he was requested for state reasons to 
reside at St. Petersburg. 

His son, Woronzow Greig, also educated at the High 
School of Edinburgh, was A.D.C. to Prince Mentschicoff 
during the Crimean^war in 1854; and, when sent to our lines 
with a flag of truce, the purity of his English excited 


surprise. He was killed by a mortal wound on the desperate 
field of Inkermann. 

Two other members of the same family figured promi- 
nently in 1877, when Adjutant- General Greig was sent from 
St. Petersburg to the Danube in August, to investigate 
the alleged frauds in the commissariat department ; and 
Admiral Greig, comptroller -general of the Russian 
Empire, arrived at Bucharest in October to inspect the 
accounts of the army contractors. 

Since then he, or another of the same name, has com- 
manded (1886) the first squadron of the fleet in the Black 

Among the prominent Scots in the Russian army 
towards the end of the last century were Lieutenant- 
General Robert Fullarton, Knight of St. Catherine, who 
died at his house of Dud wick, near Edinburgh, in 1786 ; 
and Sir Alexander Hay, Bart., Knight of St. George, who 
died in 1 792, as colonel at the head of his regiment. His 
family is now extinct. 

In 1790, Sir James Wylie, a native of Kincardineshire, 
entered the Russian service as a physician, and eight years 
after was appointed surgeon-in-ordinary to the Emperor 
Paul and heir-apparent. In 1812 he was director of 
the medical department of the Minister of Marine, 
Inspector- General of the Board of Health for the Russian 
army, and privy councillor. He was knighted by 
George IV at Ascot Races in 1814 an honour conferred 
by the sword of the Hetman Count Platoff and was made 
a Baronet of Great Britain in the same year, on his 
return to Russia, where he died in 1854, bequeathing a vast 


fortune to the Czar, greatly to the astonishment of his 
Scottish relations. " Many years ago," says a local print 
of that year, " during the reign of the Emperor Alexander, 
a shrewd Scotswoman of the old school, without either 
rank or education to recommend her, left the shores of 
the Forth for those of the Baltic on a visit to her son. 
She was received by the Russian government with all the 
pomp accorded by one monarch to another. The cannon 
fired a salute, and the Emperor touched the hand^ of the 
old Scottish matron and bade her welcome to the coast of 
Russia. This good lady was the mother of Sir James 
Wylie ; and while her heart would doubtless beat with 
gratitude for the gift of a son who was so much respected 
by the Emperor, such a welcome to his mother would 
strengthen the affection of Sir James for his master, and 
make him anxious to show his appreciation of such delicate 
kindness by every means in his power." 

The Scots colony in the Caucasus, so prominently 
referred to in Mackenzie Wallace's recent work on Russia, 
is first mentioned in the Scots Magazine for November, 1807, 
thus : " His Imperial Majesty has been pleased to grant 
a very remarkable charter to the colony of Scotsmen who 
have been settled for the last four years in the mountains 
of the Caucasus. The rights and privileges accorded to 
these Scotsmen, who form a detached settlement in a 
district so thinly populated, and bordering on the terri- 
tories of so many uncivilised tribes of Mahometans and 
heathens, are intended to increase their activity in extend- 
ing trade and manufactures, and to place them in respect 
to their immunities on the same footing with the Evangeli- 
cal Society of Sarepta." 


To this colony the Tartars, whose lands they occupied, 
were long hostile, and the Russian government, suspicious 
of these Scots, had previously, we are told, put opposition in 
their way. One way in which these Scots sought to extend 
Christianity was by the purchase of Tartar children, whom 
they educated, and at a certain age set free. One of them, 
named John Abercrombie, became of some note ; and a 
Dr. Glen was author of three forgotten pamphlets on this 
colony. It was, no doubt, some of these people that 
Spencer referred to in his Travels in 1837, when he says 
that among the bravest of Circassian warriors were the 
Marrs, sons of Mr. Marr, a Scottish merchant of Redoubt- 
Kaleh, and subject of Prince Dabion of Miugrelia. After 
returning from Scotland, where he had sent them for 
education, " these young Scots may now (1837) be reckoned 
among the most daring hunters in the wilds of Mingrelia." 

Mr. Wallace, in his work published in 1877, says that 
when travelling on the great plain that lies between the 
Sea of Azoff and the Caspian he was surprised to see on 
his map a place indicated as the Schotlandskaya Koloneya, 
or Scottish Colony ; and in pursuing his inquiries about it 
at Stavropol he found a venerable man, " with fine regular 
features of the Circassian type, coal-black, sparkling 
eyes, and a long beard that would have done honour to a 
patriarch," who asked him in turn what he wanted to 
know about the colony. 

" ' Because I am myself a Scotsman,' said Wallace, ' and 
hoped to find fellow-countrymen here.' Let the reader 
imagine my astonishment when he answered, in genuine 
broad Scots: 


" ' Oh, man, I am a Scotsman tae my name, my name 
is John Abercrombie. Did ye ever hear tell o' John Aber- 
crombie, the famous Edinburgh doctor ?' " 

" In the first years of the present century," continues 
Mr. Wallace, who is a native of Paisley, " a band of 
Scottish missionaries came to Russia, for the purpose of 
converting the Circassian tribes, and received from the 
Emperor Alexander I a large grant of land in this place, 
then on the frontier of the empire. Here they founded a 
mission and began the work, but soon discovered that the 
population were not idolaters but Mussulmans, and con- 
sequently impervious to Christianity. In this difficulty 
they fell on the idea of buying Circassian children from 
their parents and bringing them up as Christians. One of 
these children, purchased about the year 1806, was a little 
boy named Teoona. As he had been purchased with 
money subscribed by Dr. Abercrombie, he had received 
in baptism that gentleman's name, and considered himself 
the foster-son of his benefactor. Here was the explanation 
of the mystery. Teoona, alias Mr. Abercrombie, was a 
man of more than average intelligence. Besides his native 
language, he spoke English, German, and Russian fluently ; 
and he assured me that he knew several other languages 
equally well. His life had been devoted to missionary 
work, especially to translating and printing the Scriptures. 
The Scottish mission was suppressed by the Emperor 
Nicholas in 1835, and all the missionaries except two 
returned home. The son of one of these two (Galloway) 
is the only genuine Scotsman remaining. Of the ' Cir- 
cassian Scotsmen' there are several, most of whom have 



married Germans. The other inhabitants are German 
colonists from the province of Saratof ; and German is the 
language now spoken in the village of the Scottish colony." 

The present eminent Russian explorer and savant, Baron 
and Dr. Miclucho Macleay, is of Scottish descent, and his 
scientific researches in New Guinea from 1870 to 1883 
were published at St. Petersburg in 1886. 

His fit i he , Colonel Duncan Macleay, of the Russian 
army, died iu 1828, at Colpina, near St. Petersburg, and, 
according to the Edinburgh Weekly Journal for that year, 
was the nearest heir to Lord Balmerino, who was attainted 
in 1746. (See also Blackwood 1 s Magazine, 1828.) 

Concerning Baron M. von Macleay, Nature, in 1874 
(Macmillan and Co.) states : " Contrary to the advice of 
every one, this intrepid traveller and true devotee of 
science is determined again upon visiting the east coast of 
Papua. When his researches here are complete he intends 
to visit the islands of Polynesia and certain parts of the 
coast of Australia. This he calculates will take up five or 
six years. The Governor of the Dutch East Indies, like a 
true man of science, had given to Dr. Macleay for the last 
six months roomy and comfortable quarters in his palace 
at Buitonrovg. It would be well if all in high position 
would imitate this kind of ' patronage.' " 


Sir Archibald Orichton The Sultana of the Crimea Generals 
Stuart, Ochterlony, Ramsay, Wilson, Read, Armstrong, 
Nicholas Baird. 

ONE of the most distinguished Scotsmen who took 
service in Russia towards the end of the last century- was 
Sir Archibald William Crichton, a native of Edinburgh, 
where he was born in 1763, and who became physician to 
the Emperor Alexander and to the Imperial Guard. 
Descended from the Crichtons of Woodhouse and Newing- 
ton, his father was Patrick Crichton, long well known 
in Edinburgh as a coach-builder, and colonel of the 2nd 
Local Militia, though originally a captain in the 57th 

Archibald became a member of the Imperial Academy 
of St. Petersburg, and that of Natural History at Moscow. 
He was K.G.C. of the Orders of St. Anne and St. Vladimir, 
and of the Red Eagle of Prussia. He was a member of the 
Royal Institute of Paris, and author of various valuable 
works. He accompanied the Grand Duke Nicholas and 
Count Kutusof to Edinburgh in 1817, and was knighted, 
and became F.R.S., F.L.S., and F.G.S. He died in Russia 
in his 93rd year, on the 4th June, 1856. 

In September, 1820, there was celebrated in Edinburgh 



a marriage which made some noise at the time, that of 
" Alexander Ivanovitch, Sultan Katte Ghery Krirn Ghery, 
to Anne, daughter of James Neilson, Esq., of Millbank,"a 
secluded house near the Grange Loan. 

A writer in Notes and Queries in 1855 states that this 
personage, the lawful Sultan of the Crimea, had fled from 
that province in consequence of his religion, and was 
educated in Edinburgh at the expense of the Emperor 
Alexander of Russia, with a view to his becoming a Chris- 
tian, " and that his wife was hardly ever known by any 
other appellation than that of Sultana." 

Spencer, in his Travels, in 1837, says the " Sultana, 
Miss Neilson, of Edinburgh, whose excellent conduct I 
found the theme of universal praise," had a husband who 
embraced the Russian interest, secured himself a hand- 
some pension, and after residing several years in Scotland, 
preached Christianity to the Tartars, who despised a para- 
dise without houris, and to that year had not made a 
single convert. His residence in Scotland must have been 
short, as Dr. Lyall visited him and his Sultana in the 
Crimea in 1822, and Clarke, in his Travels, mentions 
visiting him at Simpheropol. He was dead before 1855, 
when his mother was living near the field of Alma. He 
had a son in the Russian army, and a daughter who was 
maid-of-honour to the wife of the Grand Duke Constantine. 
In the obituaries for 1855 we find the following : 

"At Simpheropol in the Crimea, in June, H.H. the Sul- 
tana Anne Katte Ghery Krim Ghery, daughter of the late 
J. Neilson, Esq., of Millbank"; and at Simpheropol, in the 
same month, Alexandrina Baroness Gersdorf, her eldest 


daughter ; and at Ekatermoslav, ^.he following week, her 
younger daughter, Margaret Anne, wife of Thomas Upton, 
an Englishman in the Russian service. 

In the Crimea in those days, James Sinclair, a Scottish 
gardener, resided for thirteen years on the estate of Prince 
Woronzoff, laying out the gardens ; and Hunt, a Scottish 
architect, prepared plans for the unfinished Imperial 
Palace at Great Orlanda. 

Besides those of the Greigs, several Scottish names 
came prominently forward in the Russian service about 
the time of the Crimean war. Among these we may note 
the names of Generals Stuart, Ochterlony, Ramsay, Wilson, 
Read, the Armstrongs, and Nicholas Baird. 

General Stuart, a very aged officer, shortly before his 
death was at Inverness in 1853, making the last of his 
periodical pilgrimages to the scenes of the " Forty-five," 
and, according to the Courier, " was connected with the 
Royal family of Stuart through Prince Charles' daughter, 
the Duchess of Albany. He was probably a relation of 
Baron Stuart, Russian agent-general at Bucharest in 
May, 1877. 

General Ochterlony was a son of John Ochterlony, Esq., 
of Montrose, and of the line, we believe, of Guynde. 
His father settled in Russia about 80 years before the 
Crimean war. An Alexander Ochterlony, merchant, late 
of Narva, died in 1805 at Novo Mirgorod in the Ukraine. 

The General's great-grandfather was Laird of Kintro- 
chat, and his great-grandmother was Miss Young of 

He commanded a Russian brigade at the battle of 


Oltenitza, in November, 1853, and fell, mortally wounded, 
on the field of Inkerman, according to Prince Mentshicoff's 

In 1854, General Ramsay (probably of the Balmaine 
line) was appointed governor of Finland. 

General Wilson, a Scottish engineer officer, who, on 
the 1st August, 1856, "completed his half century of 
military service under the double-headed eagle," stipulated 
that he should not be called upon to fight with British 
troops. When the fiftieth year of his service was con- 
cluded, he held his jubilee at Alexanderoffski, twelve 
miles from St. Petersburg, which became a scene of 
boisterous merry-making. The village ran with vodka, and 
was ablaze with fireworks. Next day the Emperor sent 
the veteran a splendid diamond cross, with the highest 
Order to which he was eligible. 

He was in his 80th year when the war broke out, and 
he was still at the head of millwright and other engineer- 
ing establishments at Colpina. By his mediation pass- 
ports were given to all British citizens desirous of returning 

General Read, who fought at the battle of Tchernaia, was 
the son of a civil engineer, a native of Montrose, who 
settled in Russia early in life. The general rose to be 
Imperial lieutenant of the Caucasian provinces in absence 
of Prince Woronzow. 

He was slain at the head of the Russian column, and 
on his body was found the orders signed by Prince 
Gortchakoff for fighting the battle. From them it would 
appear that a most determined attempt was to be made to 


raise the siege of Sebastopol. Had he succeeded, Balaclava 
was to be attacked and the heights stormed, while a sortie 
was to have been made from the city. 

The gallant Marshal Pelissier sent in some relics of the 
general, and ordered a search to be made for his body till 
found. On this, Prince Gortchakoff wrote him thus : 
"Sebastopol, August 19th. M. le Commandant-in-Chief, 
I have the honour to receive your communication of 16th 
inst., as well as the portfolios, containing property and 
a letter of General Read. I acknowledge gladly all the 
worth of so noble an act, as well as the generous solicitude 
which has led your Excellency to order a search for the 
body of this gallant General. Accept the sincere expres- 
sion of my feelings on this subject, and the assurance of 
my highest esteem. MICHAEL GORTCHAKOFF." 

General Armstrong we only know to have been originally 
from Jedburgh, where his son, Colonel Armstrong, also 
of the Russian army, had possession in 1867 of what is 
known as Queen Mary's House, in that ancient Border 

In 1854, Nicholas Baird, a Scotsman born, but naturalised 
Russian subject, was, and had been since 1820, a naval 
and mechanical engineer of the highest class at Cronstadt 
(Journal de St. Petersbourg, May, 1854) ; and he was 
vigorously assailed in all the English newspapers as "a 
disgrace to his country." 

In the mobilisation of the Russian army in November* 
1876, Prince Barclay de Towie (or Tolly) Weiman 
appeared as commander of the 7th Corps, representative 
of that " Sir Valter Barclay of Tollie, miles," who 


founded in 1210 the old castle bearing that inscription 
on the Banff Road near Turriff, and was progenitor of the 
great Russian Field-Marshal, Prince Barclay de Tolly, 
whose name is imperishable as one of the heroes that 
shook the power of Napoleon. 


Douglas, Prince of Danesvick Scots regiments about 1640 
Colonel Bruce H. P. Bruce of Lord Leven's Scots Regi- 
ment Marshal Keith His death Funeral Monuments. 

So far back as the year 1389 we find a train of Scottish 
knights and men-at-arms fighting under Waldenrodt, 
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, in defence of Dantzig, 
or Danesvick, as it was then named, when besieged by the 
Pagans of Prussia under Udislaus Jagello during that fifty 
years' war which ended in nearly extirpating the ancient 
inhabitants, who seemed incapable of receiving the Christian 

The Scots were led by William Douglas, Lord of Niths- 
dale, known as the " Black Douglas" from his swarthy 
complexion, who made such havoc on the English borders 
where his name became so terrible that nurses, as Gods- 
croft tells us, scared their children " when they would not 
be quiet, by saying, ' The Black Douglas comes ! The 
Black Douglas will get thee !' " (fol. ed., 1643). He married 
a daughter of Robert II before setting out for Dantzig, in 
making a furious sally from which he and his Scottish 
knights cut the besiegers to pieces and cleared the district. 
For this he was created Prince of Danesvick, Duke of 
Spruce, and Admiral of the Fleet, while all Scots were for 


ever made free men of the town ; and in token thereof the 
Royal arms of Scotland, with those of Douglas, were placed 
over the great gate, where they remained " until it was lately 
rebuilt," says the Atlas Geographicus for 1711. A part of 
the suburbs is still called Little Scotland, and near it was 
the ancient bridge on which Douglas was foully murdered 
by a band of English assassins employed by Lord Clifford, 
who had insulted him, and yet dreaded to meet him in 
mortal combat. By his wife he left a daughter, known in 
the encomiastic language of the age as " The Fair Maid of 

In 1639-40 "Colonels William Cunninghame, Drummond, 
and Mill, who had commanded Scottish regiments in 
Prussia, Lusatia, and Silesia, introduced great improvements 
into the army of the Covenant." (Memoirs of Montrose, 
London, 1858.) 

We have elsewhere referred to John Bruce, of the Airth 
family, who about 1650 landed by mistake at Konigsberg 
in Prussia, and entered the service of the Elector of Bran- 
denburg, as that province comprising the ancestral domains 
of the reigning family is still named, and was very soon 
appointed to the command of a regiment, which was the 
highest rank he ever obtained, though he stood well in the 
regards of the Elector, as the following anecdote, related in 
the same memoir of his grandson, proves : 

" My grandfather one day was hunting with the Elector, 
when his Highness, in eager pursuit of the chase, entered 
a large wood, and was separated from all his attendants 
except my grandfather (Colonel Bruce), who kept up with 
him. Night overtaking them in the wood, they were 


obliged to dismount and lead their horses, when, after 
groping their way for a considerable time in the dark, they 
perceived a light in the distance, and found themselves at 
the miserable hut of a poor tar-burner (sic), who lived a 
great way into the forest. Being informed that they were a 
long way from any village or habitation, the prince, being 
tired and hungry, asked what they could get to eat, upon 
which the poor man produced a loaf of coarse black bread, 
of which the Elector ate heartily, with a draught- of pure 
water, declaring that he had never eaten with so good an 
appetite before. On asking how large the forest was, he 
was told that it was of vast extent, and bordered on 
Mecklenburg- Strelitz. My grandfather observed that it 
was a pity such a tract should lie useless, and asked a 
grant of it, offering to build a village on the spot where they 
then stood. To this the Elector agreed, confirmed the gift 
by charter, with a great privilege annexed ; so my grand- 
father built the village in the middle of the forest, which 
he called Srucewald, or ' Bruce Wood,' and another at the 
peasant's hut, which he called Jetzkendorf, its ancient 
name from some ruins there visible. The Elector slept 
upon some straw till daybreak, when he was awakened by Ins 
attendants, who had been searching for him all night, and 
with whom he returned to Berlin." (Memoirs of P. If. 
Bruce, Jsq.) 

Colonel John Bruce married then a lady of the Arensdorf 
family, with whom he got several estates, and by whom ho 
had two sons and three daughters. One of the latter was 
married to the governor of Pom crania ; the second became 
Abbess of a Protestant convent, but afterwards married 


Colonel Rebeur, who got Bruce Wood with her. Colonel 
Bruce's eldest son Charles was killed, a lie tenant of 
infantry, at the siege of Namur ; his youngest son James 
married Catherina Detring, of a noble family in West- 
phalia, when lieutenant of a Scottish regiment, commanded 
by David Earl of Leven, who, according to Douglas, 
brought that regiment over with him to Britain in 1688, 
and was made governor of Edinburgh Caatle after the 
great ?iege in 1689. H. P. Bruce was born in the castle 
of Detring in 1692. Bruce says : " This regiment was 
ordered to Flanders, and my father carried my mother 
with him, where he remained till 1698, when the regiment 
returned to Scotland, whither we accompanied him. The 
regiment was then put in garrison at Fort William." 

After being educated at Cupar-Fife, young Henry P. 
Bruce joined his uncle, Colonel Bebeur's Prussian regi- 
ment, as a volunteer, carrying a firelock, and served four 
campaigns under the Duke of Maryborough, the first being in 
1707. In the winter of 1710 he was quartered at Tournay, 
and while there received an invitation as elsewhere re- 
corded to join his cousin, the master of the ordnance in 
Russia, with the rank of captain, which he accepted. 

After serving in various parts of the Russian empire, 
in 1716 he was ordered to discipline thirty grenadiers, men 
of enormous stature, for the King of Prussia, who had a 
craze for tall soldiers. Some of these men, one of whom 
was an Indian, one a Turk, two Persians, and two Tartars, 
the rest being Muscovites, were six feet nine inches in 
height, without shoes; and to the king they were sent as 
a present from the Czar. By inarching and sledging he 


conveyed these to Prussia, halting at Riga on the 12th 
April, and there they were " regaled" by seeing twelve men 
broken alive on the wheel for a robbery and murder, which 
he details at great length. He arrived at Berlin and 
received a purse of 200 ducats for " his giants, who were 
all in good health and spirits," and whom the king 
declared to be " the handsomest men he had ever Been." 

In 1721 he received intelligence that by the death of his 
grandfather certain Scotch estates had devolved- on him ; 
but he failed to get leave from the Czar, with whom he 
went on the Persian expedition in 1723, and, after making 
a survey of the Caspian coasts and performing other 
services, he ultimately returned to Scotland, was employed 
in the fortification of Berwick in 1745, and died in his 
ancestral house in the year 1757. 

In 1724 (according to the Evening Courant of 9th April) 
the puople of Edinburgh had the spectacle of " a band of 
drums beating through the city, by permission of King 
George," for recruits for the King of Prussia's tall Grenadier 
Regiment ; and again a levy in Edinburgh was made for 
the same corps in 1728 each recruit getting two guineas 
as arles. 

In 1747, General James Keith, leaving the Russian 
service, entered that of Frederick the Great, who, aware 
of his high attainments in war and diplomacy, at once 
made him a field-marshal of the Prussian armies, and so 
far distinguished him by his confidence as to travel in 
disguise with him over a great part of Poland, Hungary, 
and Germany. In public business Frederick made him his 
chief counsellor, and in diversions his chief companion. 


He was greatly delighted with a war game which Keith 
invented something suggested by chess. The latter 
ordered some thousand tiny statuettes of men in armour to 
be cast by a founder, and these were massed opposite each 
other in battle array ; then parties would be ordered from 
the wings or centre to show the advantages of such move- 
ments ; and in this way the king and the marshal would 
amuse themselves for hours together, to the improvement 
of their military knowledge. 

It is recorded of Keith that when he went to Paris to be 
treated for the terrible wound he received at Ochachof, 
Folard was writing his Polt/bius. As a military author 
was rare then, the marshal's chief desire was to make his 
acquaintance, and Folard readily showed him some of his 
writings among others, his remarks on the battle of 
Telemone, where the Gauls, when attacked by two double 
Roman armies, had to present a double front. Keith told 
him there was a similar case in the Bible : when David in 
the same order fought the Amorites and Syrians. Folard, 
on making good the discovery, embraced Keith, and said : 
" My dear sir, could you not procure that book for me ? it 
is not to be found in Paris !" 

When Keith expressed his astonishment at this remark, 
the chevalier excused himself by saying " he knew the 
book only by the name of the Holy Writings, and not by 
that of the Bible ; and that, as he never believed it con- 
tained such excellent things, he had never taken the trouble 
to read it." 

In 1750, we find (Scots Mag., 1750) that there was 
married, at Berlin, the chevalier Keith, eldest son of Sir 


William Keith of Ludquharne, Aberdeenshire, deceased, 
and nephew of Marshal Keith, to the only daughter of M. 
de Suhm, one of the King of Prussia's privy councillors. 
He was previously a captain in the Russian service, but 
left it with his kinsman, and was made lieutenant-colonel 
and A.D.C. to the King of Prussia. 

In 1751 the King of Prussia sent the marshal's brother, 
George, the attainted earl marshal, as his ambassador to 
the court of France, and three years after he was appointed 
governor of Neufchatel. 

Frederick, in his history of the Seven Years' War, 
refers to a famous political intriguante, " Madame Ogilvie," 
who in 1756-7 was first lady-in-waiting to the queen, and 
had extensive estates near Leutzneritz, and to whom letters 
of great importance were sent from Balumia containing 
secret intelligence, concealed in boxes supposed to contain 
puddings a discovery " which rendered the court more 
circumspect in its correspondence." 

Other Scotch names crop up about the same time in 

The London Gazette of 31st January, 1758, records that 
Major John Grant, of the Prussian Regiment of Guards, 
and A.D.C. to the King Frederick, returned to Berlin from 
London, and passed on to Silesia " to give his Majesty an 
account of the commission he has executed at the Court of 
England. This officer has received several handsome pre- 
sents from the King of Great Britain." 

The Caledonian Mercury of the following year mentions 
the death of Patrick Grant of Dunlugus, in Banffshire ; 
adding that he died a bachelor. He is succeeded in his 


estate by his brother, Major John Grant, A.D.C. to the 
King of Prussia, and that he had been twice on missions 
" to the court of Britain since the present war." He was 
major-general in 1759. He had formerly been in the 
Russian service, and, like Ludquharne, accompanied 
Marshal Keith to Prussia, where he died in 1764, Baron 
Le Grant and governor of Neisse, in Prussian Siberia. 
(Edinburgh Advert., vol. iii.) 

In 1758, when Frederick the Great inaugurated a new 
campaign by entering Moravia, he invested Olmutz, and 
after the siege was raised the Prussian army, led by 
Marshal Keith, then governor of Berlin, had several 
skirmishes with the Austrians, whom he either defeated or 
foiled by the skill of his movements, till at length he found 
means to effect a junction with the column of the king, 
who was impatient to engage the Austrians under Count 

With coolness and ability the latter affected to decline 
an engagement, and seemed even to retire before the king ; 
but he never halted two days in the same place till the 
10th of October, when he took post in a strongly entrenched 
camp in front of the well-trained Prussian army, which 
was full of ardour to engage. A courier was then de- 
spatched to Marshal Keith, who was scouring the country 
with a body of cavalry, which encountered a column of the 
enemy on the 12th and dispersed it, taking the leader 

At five in the afternoon of the 13th the marshal marched 
into camp, when he found the whole army in order of 
battle opposite to the Austrians. With his friend the 


king he concerted a plan of operations, and had assigned 
to him the command of the right wing. 

" But take a little rest," said Frederick ; " you will need 
all your vigour for the morrow." 

This was at Hochkirken, a village of Saxony, in the 
Lusatian circle, and situated, as the name implies, on a 

Count Daun, however, precluded the execution of this 
purpose by surprising the Prussian trenches at four A.M. 
on the 14th October. In order to draw the king, he sent 
a detachment into an adjacent wood, with orders to fell 
the timber as noisily as possible, and meanwhile got his 
main body in motion, leaving all their tents standing. 
The Saxons in his army were clothed in the Prussian 
uniform, and some of these he sent forward to reconnoitre 
the outposts of Frederick. Unluckily for this artful 
scheme, two sentinels who were advanced at the extremity 
of the Prussian lines had gone beyond the limits of their 
post, and were made prisoners, thereby causing some alarm 
at the very time when the Austrians were extending their 

The Prussian uniform, the darkness of the morning, and 
the prevalence of a thick fog, deceived the army of 
Frederick ; thus, when the other sentinels, who were next 
the two who had been seized, said, " Is all well ?" the 
answer came, " All's well." 

This was exactly at 4 A.M., when the Austrian grena- 
diers, after pouring in a volley, slung their muskets and 
assailed the trenches sword in hand. In the camp of 
Frederick the most dreadful confusion now ensued ; the 



officers rushed to their posts. Marshal Keith sprang up 
in his tent, and was in the act of stooping to draw on a 
boot when a ball passed through his heart and he fell dead 
without uttering a word. 

The right wing, deprived thus of a leader, was nearly 
cut to pieces by the Austrians, though the king, when in- 
formed that Keith had fallen, assumed the command in 
that quarter, and got as many regiments as possible to close 
up and present a front to the enemy, while he began to 
retire with the rest, unfollowed by Count Daun, who was 
too wary to pursue. 

One account has it that Marshal Keith's body was dis- 
gracefully stripped by the retreating Prussians. Another 
(in the Gentleman's Magazine) states that the king sent to 
Count Daun, earnestly recommending the wounded to his 
care, and the interment of the dead in accordance with their 
rank. The count went immediately to the tent of Marshal 
Keith, " when he found 'he corpse not yet stripped, and 
lying on the spot where he fell. Orders were immediately 
given for carrying him to a church within two miles of 
Hochkirken, where his lordship surveyed the body, but, 
unable to stand unmoved in view of such a spectacle, he 
embraced him and kissed him amid a flood of tears. Every- 
one in the army pressed forward to gaze on him ; all the 
general officers lamented his misfortune and joined in high 
encomiums on his valour and virtues." 

And of the many who stood by few were more deeply 
moved than the gallant Irish exile, Count Joseph Lacy, 
under whose father, the conqueror of the Crimea, Keith had 
served, and who burst into tears when he saw the old wound 


won at the storming of Okzokof. On the day of his 
temporary funeral at Hochkirken, the general officers of 
the Austrian army offered to carry the coffin on their 
shoulders, and, as it was lowered down, three rounds 
were fired from twelve field-pieces, with three rounds of 

" Such was the end of the great Scottish field-marshal, 
James Keith," wrote one at the time, " in whose person 
were united the virtues of a man, a hero, and a Christian 
He was a friend to merit, a benefactor to the indigent, and 
a well-wisher to mankind in general. He was so amiable 
in his temper and agreeable in his conversation that he 
won the love and admiration of all who knew him with any 
degree of intimacy. . . . Such uncommon desert could not 
fail to procure him the esteem and confidence of the 
Prussian monarch, who is so sagacious in discovering and 
so generous in rewarding merit." 

By order of Frederick, the body was removed to Berlin, 
and interred with great pomp in a vault of the garrison 
church. All the bells in the city tolled while the vast 
funeral cortege, the Hussars, the battalions of Leuderitz 
and Langen, with arms revei-sed and craped colours, the 
marshal's helmet, sword, gloves, and baton, and a mourning 
coach containing his nephew, Mr. Keith, and Marshal 
Kulstein, passed through Ross Street, King Street, and 
over the great bridge to the grand-parade. 

In this year a pardon was most grudgingly granted by 
George II to his brother, the Earl Marshal, and he was 
permitted to succeed to the estates of Kintore, and to return 
home. It was then the King of Prussia wrote that letter 



which we find in Cordiner's Antiquities, etc., of the North of 
Scotland : 

" I cannot allow the Scots the happiness of possessing 
you altogether. Had I a fleet I would make a descent on 
their coast and carry you off. I must therefore have re- 
course to your friendship to bring you to him who esteems 
and loves you. I loved your brother (James Keith) with 
all my heart and soul ; I was indebted to him for great 
obligations ! This is my right to you this is my title ! 
I spend my time as formerly, only at night I read Virgil's 
Georgics, and go to my garden in the morning to make my 
gardener reduce them to practice. He laughs at Virgil 
and me, and thinks us both fools. 

" Come to ease, to friendship, and philosophy ; these are 
what, after the bustle of life, we must all have recourse to. 


Thus urged, the Earl Marshal again returned to his 
government of Neufchatel, after which he entered the 
Spanish service. 

To the memory of Marshal Keith a monument was 
erected in the Wilhelm Platz, near the Potsdam gate of 
Berlin, and, on the recommendation of Prince Bismarck, a 
copy thereof was sent to Peterhead, and erected in front of 
the town-house there, as the Emperor of Germany in 
1868. With it he sent a Cabinet order, of which the 
following is a translation : 

" I have received with particular satisfaction the repre- 
sentation of the provost, magistrates, and town-council of 
the worthy town of Peterhead, that the memory of Field- 


Marshal J. F. E. Keith and his heroic career in Prussia 
still live in his native place. I therefore willingly grant 
the town of Peterhead the wished-for statue of the Field- 
Marshal, after the model of the monument which my great 
ancestor ordered to be placed to his deserving general in 
Berlin, and hope that this statue may contribute to main- 
tain a lasting connection between the birthland of the 
Field-Marshal and his adopted home, Prussia. 

" With the execution of this present order I commission 
you, the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
" Coblenz, 23rd August, 1868. 

(Signed) " WILHELM. 

" For the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
Grr. Eulenburg." 


Siege of Dantzig, 1807 Scoto -Prussian Officers in 1869 
Admiral Maclean Baron von Craignish Count Douglas 
The Halketts in Hanover Gordons in Poland Lord 
Cranstoun's Scottish Regiment. 

DURING the siege of Dantzig by the French in 1807, 
Alexander Gibson, a Scottish merchant there, distinguished 
himself on the walls and batteries so greatly as to obtain 
personal letters of thanks from the King of Prussia and 
the officer commanding, General Kalkrenth. This gentle- 
man was a fourth son of William Gibson, a merchant of 
Edinburgh, and a brother of the well-known Sir James 
Gibson-Craig of Riccarton ; but during the Franco- 
Prussian war of 1869-70 many Scottish names came 
prominently forward in the service of the King of Prussia. 
A Major Douglas, commanding a regiment in garrison 
at Pillau, asserted his claim to the dukedom of Douglas, 
in right of a seventh son of that house (whose name is not 
to be found in the Douglas Peerage), born to William, 
ninth Earl of Angus, who died in 1591, but the claim was 
not pressed ; and concerning the Scotsmen " who have 
served with distinction in the Prussian army," the North 
German Correspondent of October, 1869, stated that the 
families of most of these had left Scotland " in 1657 to escape 


from the power of General Monk. Many noblemen then 
thought it advisable to seek a refuge on the Continent, or 
at least to send their children to a place of safety. Among 
the names of the refugees we find many who occupy a 
high place in Scottish history, as, for example, Douglas, 
Bothwell (of the Holyrood House family ?), Gordon, Hamil- 
ton, Keith, Morton, Crichton, and Abernethy. Prussia 
was then rising into importance under the rule of the 
Great Elector, 'and,' as one of them wrote, ' this country 
being fertile and well situated for trade, made us stay 
here.' They long continued to maintain friendly and 
intimate relations with the country of their birth and the 
branches of their families who had remained at home ; but 
the losses which the Scottish nobility suffered by the Civil 
War prevented their return. Thus, even before the 
Huguenot emigration, Prussia formed an asylum for the 
exiled Scots, who, as we have lately showed, have nobly 
repaid her hospitality. Among those who are still serving 
in her army we may specially mention Lieutenant-General 
Hellmuth von Gordon, who fought at the head of the 
Magdeburg brigade with great bravery at Kotiiggratz." 

In 1870, Lord Charles Hamilton, son of the eleventh Duke 
of Hamilton, served in the German army, particularly at 
the siege of Strasbourg ; he underwent such hardship from 
exposure, and his constitution suffered so severely, that he 
died of it in after years ; and in the summer of 1880 the 
German navy in the Baltic was commanded by R ear- 
Admiral MacLean, "tb"> descendant of a noble Scottish 
emigrant, who accompanied Keith to Berlin in the time of 
Frederick the Great," according to the Globe, " and was 


the first Prussian naval cadet. He early distinguished 
himself, took an active part in the improvement of the 
German navy, anil commanded the Prinz Aldabert on her 
late voyage round the world. His resignation is generally 
deplored, as it will deprive the Imperial service of one of 
its most experienced and valuable officers." 

In 1871, when the Campbell clan presented a magnificent 
necklace to the Princess Louise on the occasion of her 
marriage with the Marquis of Lome, among the subscribers 
appeared the name of Lieutenant Ronald Campbell, of the 
7th or Magdeburg Cuirassiers, who had won the Iron Cross 
for saving his colonel's life at Yionville ; and further 
attention was drawn to him when, as Captain, as Baron 
Craignish and A.D.C to the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and 
Gotha, he was in Lcndo i in 1884 in charge of the band 
of that regiment, clad in white tunics and bright steel 

The 7th, or, as it is more often called, Bismarck's Cuiras- 
siers, played a very important part in the desperate battle 
of Mars -la-Tour, on 14th August, 1870, when Prince 
Frederick Charles sacrificed his cavalry to save his infantry. 
On that memorable day the Brandenburg division was 
thrown forward to overlap the advance quad of Marshal 
Bazaine's army on the Verdun road. For a long time it was 
as much as the division could do to hold its own. Suddenly 
on its right flank a French battery galloped into position, 
and began to decimate its ranks. Then, from under cover 
of the little hamlet called La Ferine, the Bismarck 
Cuirassiers, in column of squadrons, and led by Count 
Schmetto, charged up the slope and rushed on the battery 
sword in hand. 

In the melee that ensued a French infantry officer seized the staff." p. 73 


"Beside the count," says the Army and Navy Gazette, 
"rode a young Scotch lieutenant named Campbell, who 
had entered the German army and won his commission 
on the field of Sadowa. The squadrons reached the 
guns and captured them, cutting down the gunners and 
striking the horses as the guns were being limbered up. 
At that moment the cuirassiers received a most galling 
fire from the regiments of French infantry, until then 
invisible, but formed in square on the Verdun Road, and 
without a moment's hesitation Count Schmetto led his 
squadrons at these squares." 

The French cast away their arms and flung themselves 
prone on the earth ci'ying for mercy ! Then appeared on 
either flanks of the cuirassiers bodies of French cavalry, 
but, wheeling to the right and left in splendid style, the 
Germans drove both the 7th French Cuirassiers and 4th 
Chasseurs d'Afrique into some woods, after which they re- 
formed at leisure, though volleys were poured on them. 
'' At the infantry went Count Sclimetto again, this time 
punishing both battalions fearfully," says the writer 
before quoted. " Lieutenant Campbell was carrying at this 
time the colours of the French Cuirassiers, which he had 
captured. In the melee that ensued a French infantry 
officer seized the staff, and, placing a revolver to Lieutenant 
Campbell's hand, sent a bullet clean through it, thus 
forcing him to drop his prize. The Frenchman did not 
live long to tell the tale ! The Bismarck Cuirassiers went 
into this action 800 strong, and came out of it numbering 
some 250 officers and men. Lieutenant Campbell received 
the Iron Cross from the hands of the Crown Prince of 


Germany, the Order of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, and was 
further made Baron von Craignish in recognition of his 
gallant conduct throughout the war, and was subsequently 

A writer in Notes and Queries stated that this officer's 
great-grandfather, Farquhar Campbell, married Margaret, 
daughter of Dougald Campbell of Craignish, and though 
removed from being the head of the old family, is sprung 
from it in more than one line of descent, and that he is 
" simply a cadet of the Clan Dougal Craignish." 

His brother officer, Count William Douglas, captain of 
the Garde du Corps of the German army, was presented 
at the Prince of Wales's levee in June, 1886. 

A few Scotsmen have found their way into the service 
of Hanover, that petty electorate (kingdom it could scarcely 
be called) which is now an integral portion of the Prussian 
empire fortunately for Great Britain, that was so often 
called on to defend it. 

There, some time about the year 1640, Major-General Sir 
James Lumsden of Invergollie was commandant of Osna- 
burg. He had been third colonel of the Green Brigade of 
Scots in Sweden, and was afterwards Scottish governor 
of Newcastle. (Turner's Memoirs, etc.) 

Major Drummond Graham of Inchbraikie, son of Captain 
Graham, of the 72nd Highlanders, who was wounded at 
Gibraltar, and grandson of the Laird of Inchbraikie, who 
was a captain in the Dutch service, served in the Hanoverian 
Guards, and at Waterloo was severely wounded in the 
defence of La Haye Sainte, falling under a charge of 
French cuirassiers. He died at Tours in April, 1855. 


Two other cadets of the Pitfirran family were in the 
aume service, sons of General Sir Hugh Halkett, C.B., and 
G.C.H., a Peninsula and Waterloo officer of the German 
Legion, who also served in North Germany, and at the siege 
of Stralsund in 1807. 

These were Colonel James Halkett (once of the Cold- 
stream Guards), who died at Largs in 1870, a baron of 
the kingdom of Hanover ; and Baron Colin Halkett, who 
died at Celle (or Zell) in 1879. 

A few Scots also are to be traced in Poland, or Polish 
Prussia, and of these a curious collection of " Birth Brieves" 
will be found in the fifth volume of the Spalding Club 

In 1568 (according to the Atlas Geographicus, vol. i), 
George, fifth Earl of Huntly, when under forfeiture, 
probably for his father's share at the battle of Corrichie in 
1562, " was made a marquis of Poland, and is the only one 

According to Letters of the Reign of James VI, in 1624, 
Poland is described as being literally " swarming with 
Scots pedlars" ; but in Dantzig many of these so-called 
pedlars were very opulent merchants, who had a rule of 
government among themselves, and lived in such a way as 
to secure the respect and esteem of the people there. A 
great tide of emigration seems to have gone on, " exorbitant 
numbers of young boys and maids unfit for service," till, in 
the summer of the year named, an expulsion of he Scots 
was threatened, and seemingly was only obviated by the 
influence of Patrick Gordon, agent for James VI in the 
city of Dantzig. 


About 1648 we find two of the Huntly family in Poland. 

Lord Henry Gordon and his sister, Lady Catherine, were 
son and daughter of George, the second marquis. The 
former, during the usurpation of Cromwell, took military 
service in Poland under John Casimir, and won high dis- 
tinction by his bravery ; and the latter, who accompanied 
him, by her marriage with Count Morstain, high treasurer 
of Poland, became the ancestress of Prince Czartorinski, 
who during the middle of the last century was one of the 
candidates for the Polish crown, and of several other 
families of distinction (Sir Robert Douglas, etc.). 

In 1656 Lord Cranston levied a Scottish regiment for 
the King of Poland's service ; " the Royalists," says Fraser 
of Kirkhill, "choosing rather to go abroad, though in a 
mean condition, than live at home in slavery." This corps 
would seem to have been chiefly enlisted at Inverness, where 
forty-three Frasers joined it, including Lovat's son as cap- 
tain, young Clanvacky as a lieutenant, young Phopachy as 
an ensign, and young Foyers as a corporal. The rest came 
from Stratherrick, Strathglass, etc., and marched out of 
Inverness in the face of Monk's garrison. This levy 
proved unfortunate. Most of them were cut off in Poland, 
and we shall meet with the survivors elsewhere fourteen 
years after. 

In a Scottish newspaper called The North Briton, long 
since defunct, there occurs the following paragraph : 

" It is a circumstance not unworthy of remark that a 
great number of persons of Scottish lineage are now to be 
found in Poland. Among the Polish nobility are several 
names very common in this country, as belonging to our 


oldest and best families such as Johnston, Lindsay, 
Gordon, and Middleton. These individuals are in general 
descended from Scottish adventurers who sought employ- 
ment in Russian armies in the 17th century." (North 
Briton, January 5, 1831.) 

There died in October, 1886, at Munich, a Scottish lady, 
the Countess of TJsedom (in Pomerania), whose husband 
was deliverer of the famous " Stab in the Heart" despatch. 
She was the daughter of Sir John Malcolm of Burnfoot 
(the distinguished soldier and Persian diplomat), and his 
wife Charlotte, daughter of Sir Alexander Campbell, 
Bart., and was born in 1818. 



St. Colman The Scottish Bands in Bohemia Colonels Gray, 
Edmonds, Hepburn, etc. The four Counts Leslie. 

CURIOUSLY enough, an ancient Scottish pilgrim, called 
St. Colman in the Roman Breviary, is the apostle of 
Austria. When proceeding on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 
he reached Stookheraw, on the Danube, six miles from 
Vienna, where the inhabitants, believing him to be a spy, 
tortured him to death on the 13th October, 1012. He was 
canonised by Gregory IX, became honoured in Austria 
as the tutelary saint of the country, where several churches 
were founded in his honour, and according to the Atlas 
Geograpkicus in Vienna there was still (in 1711) a Scottish 
house or convent, " founded for the reception of Scotsmen 
in their pilgrimages to the Holy Land" a fashion surely 
past at that period. 

The Princess Eleanor Stuart, second daughter of the 
illustrious James I, was married to Sigismund, Duke of 
Austria, who came again to Scotland with Mary of Gueldres, 
in 1449. She had all her father's love of literature, and 
translated the romance of Ponthus et Sidoyne into German 
for the amusement of her husband. 

In May, 1620, the drums of Sir Andrew Gray 
(designed sometimes of Broxmouth) were beating 


up for recruits to follow him to the Bohemian wars 
against the Emperor of Germany, and he formed a camp 
on the Monkrig in Haddingtonshire, where he was joined 
by Sir John Hepburn of Athelstaneford and other gallant 
soldiers of fortune. Sir Andrew Gray figures frequently 
in history during the reign of James VI. Being a 
Catholic, he was obnoxious to the Church, and in 1594, 
as " Captain Andrew Gray," was classed among " Papists 
and traitors" in the Book of the Universall Kirk ; 
and at the battle of Glenlivet, as "colonel," he com- 
manded the Earl of Huntly's artillery. (Wodrow.) A 
letter of Lady Margaret Setoun's, dated 19th May, 1620, 
states that " Coronell Gray, his captains and their men of 
weir, are all going to Bohemia the xx. of this instant." 
(Eglinton Memorials.) 

On being recruited by 150 moss-troopers, captured by 
the Warden of the Middle Marches, for turbulence on the 
Border, Sir Andrew Gray, on finding that his force 
amounted to 1,500 men, embarked at Leith and sailed for 
Holland, en route for Bohemia, in the Protestant cause, 
which was also the cause of the son-in-law of the King 
of Scotland, the cowardly Elector Palatine, and they were 
conducted, by way of Frankfort, with the aid of Henry 
Frederick, Prince of Nassau, to escape the Marquis of 
Spinola, who was hovering on another route to cut them 

Though aware that the Spaniards and Germans, under 
the Archduke, tinder Spinola, and others, were about to 
invade the Palatinate, James VI remained strangely 
apathetic. Thus the Protestants of Scotland and Eng- 


land were indignant of the former kingdom all the more 
so as the people considered the good and gentle Princess 
Elizabeth one of themselves. Thus Sir Andrew Gray, 
though " a ranke Papist," as he is called by Calderwood, 
drew his sword in her cause. 

Under Sir Horace Vere, who had served with distinc- 
tion in that desperate affair at Sluys, when under Count 
Wilhelm, " the old Scots Regiment led the van of battle," 
some 200 English volunteers sailed from Gravesend two 
months after the Scots had led the way, and these com- 
bined British auxiliaries joined a part of the Bohemian 
army, consisting of 10,000 men, the Margrave of Anspach 
not having mustered his entire force. 

In September the Duke of Bavaria and Spinola took 
the field to enforce the Imperial authority ; and, in the 
campaigns which ensued, young Hepburn, by his own 
valour, when in his twentieth year, became captain of a 
company of pikes in Sir Andrew Gray's band, and, prior 
to the fatal battle of Prague, had the special duty of 
guarding the King of Bohemia. 

Among his comrades was one named Edmonds, son of a 
baker in Stirling, who on one occasion, with his sword in 
his teeth, swam the Danube, where it was both deep and 
rapid, stole past the Austrian lines, and, favoured by the 
gloom of a dark night, penetrated into the heart of the 
Imperial camp. There, by equal strategy and personal 
strength, he gagged and brought off as prisoner Charles de 
Longueville, the great Count de Benguoi, recrossed the 
stream, and presented him as a prisoner to the Prince of 
Orange, then an ally of the Elector-King of Bohemia. 


For this deed he was at once made colonel. He amassed 
great wealth in these wars, and in the decline of life 
returned to die in his native town, where he built a hand- 
some manse for the parish minister, and, in memory of his 
father, placed in the eastern gable thereof the bakers' arms 
in stone three piels which remained there till 1710 ; and 
to his daughter, who married Sir Thomas Livingstone, 
Bart., of Westquarter, he left a magnificent fortune. 
(Douglas Peerage.} 

This was, no doubt, the same Colonel Edmonds who is 
referred to as serving at the defence of Ostende, eighteen 
years before. We are told that when the States-General 
reviewed the garrison the commands were assigned to 
" Colonel Dorp, a Dutchman ; Colonel Edmunds, a Scots- 
man ; and Hertoin, a Frenchman ; while Sir Francis Vere, 
with the former garrison, joined the army under Prince 
Maurice." (Russell's Modern Europe, vol. iii.) 

Three Haigs Robert, George, and James sons of John 
Haig of Beimerside, served in these wars. Their mother, 
Elizabeth Macdougall of Stodrig, had been nurse to the 
Princess Elizabeth in Falkland; and all died in their 
armour fighting for her on the plains of Bohemia. 

By this time the battle of Prague had been fought on the 
8th November, 1620. There Gray's Scots guarded the 
King of Bohemia ; there the latter, in one day, by his 
kinsman Maximilian of Bavaria, was stripped of the 
Bohemian crown and Electoral hat, and 4,000 Bohemians 
were slain. Then, in grim earnest, began the terrible 
Thirty Years' War; while the timid Elector fled to 
Silesia, and finally to France in his flight and terror 


leaving behind his queen, the Scottish princess, who was 
protected and carried off on his own horse by Ensign 
Hopkin, a young officer of pikes, in the band of Sir 
Horace Vere. She was conveyed by him to Breslau. 
(Memoirs of the Queen of Bohemia, 2 vols.) 

In 1622, under Colonels Sir Andrew Gray, Henderson, 
younger of Fordel, Captains Hepburn and Hume, the 
Scottish bands transferred the scene of their services to 
Bergen-op-Zoom, the great fortress which bars the way to 
Spanish Brabant, and which they defended with heroic 
valour In the summer of that year it was invested by 
Spinola, who left 30,000 men to keep the conquered 
Palatinate in awe. Borgia attacked the fortress on the 
north, Baglioni on the south, but the Scottish pikemen 
hurled them from the broaches. There, Colonel Henderson 
was slain, and then " old Morgan with his English brigade 
gave them their hands full, for it is a great disadvantage 
for living bodies to fight against dead walls." (Atlas 
Ge ., 1711.) After firing above 200,000 cannon-shot, 
Spinola, on the approach of Prince Maurice, abandoned 
a siege which had cost him 12,000 men. 

The Protestant religion was now crushed in Bohemia. 
The Scottish bands had joined Count Mansfeldt, to keep 
whose army out of Flanders Spinola met it in battle at 
Fleura, in Hainault, in August, 1622; and though the Scots, 
under Gray, Hepburn, Hume, and Sir James Ramsay, 
evinced the greatest bravery, the Spaniards remained 
masters of the field. Mansfeldt's army fell to pieces in 
the following year, and the remnant of his Scots who had 
survived the war in Bohemia turned to seek another banner 


tinder Hepburn and others. The veteran Sir Andrew re- 
turned to Scotland. 

In 1624 he was seeking military employment in London 
from King James VI. He usually wore buff and armour, 
even in time of peace ; and the timid monarch never saw 
the grim veteran without emotions of uneasiness, for, in 
addition to his long sword and formidable dagger, he 
always wore a pair of iron pistols in his girdle. On one 
occasion the king, seeing him thus accoutred, " toM him 
merrily he was now so well fortified that if he were but 
well victualled he would be impregnable." 

The year 1634 saw some Scots taking a prominent part 
in the fall of the great Wallenstein. When the daring 
ambition of the latter led him to think of dismembering 
the great Empire, it was crushed when he was spending 
his Christmas holidays in the old Castle of Egra, in 
Bohemia a place then fortified by a treble wall. The 
garrison was commanded by John Gordon, a Presbyterian, 
a native of Aberdeenshire, who, from being a private 
soldier, had risen to the colonelcy of Tzertzski's regiment ; 
while Wallenstein's private escort consisted of 250 men of 
James Butler's Irish Regiment, commanded by that officer 
in person. 

The latter, with Colonel Gordon and Major Walter Leslie, 
son of the laird of Balquhain, in the Garioch, on receiving 
secret orders from Vienna, resolved to put the ambitious 
general to death. The Scots were both Presbyterians . 
but Butler, a Catholic, made some remarks expressive of 
admiration of Wallenstein. 

" You may do as you please," said Gordon, grimly ; " but 



death itself can alone alienate me from the duty and affec- 
tion I bear his Majesty the Emperor." 

Various modes of removing Wallenstein were suggested, 
and the last adopted was a resolution to slay him and his 
friends at a banquet to which they were invited. All the 
avenues were blocked up by troops. The feast was pro- 
tracted to half-past ten at night, and Wallenstein had 
retired, when Colonel Gordon filled a goblet with wine, and 
proposed the health of the cunning Elector of Saxony, the 
chief enemy of the Emperor. 

Butler affected astonishment, pretended high words 
ensued, and while the friends of the fated Wallenstein 
looked about them in perplexity the hall doors were 
dashed in, and two Irishmen, Geraldine and Deveron, 
with their armed soldiers, rushed in with shouts of 
"Long live Ferdinand the Second!" Then Butler, 
Gordon, and Leslie seized up each a candle and drew 
their swords. 

Wallenstein and his friends snatched their weapons, the 
tables were thrown over, and a deadly combat began. 
Defending himself in a corner, Colonel Tzertzski slew 

" Leave me for a moment," he cried ; " leave me to deal 
with Leslie and Gordon hand-to-hand, and then kill me; 
but oh, Gordon, what a supper is this for your friends !" 

He was hew*n to pieces, together with the young Duke 
of Lerida and others ; while Deveron and thirty soldiers 
rushed to the bedchamber of Wallenstein, Duke of Fried- 
land and Prince of the Vandal Isles, who, finding escape 
by the lofty window impossible, turned to face his 


destroyers in his shirt, pale, defenceless, for Schiller asserts 
that he was disturbed in the study of astrology. 

By one thmst of his partisan into his heart the Irishman 
slew him, though his soldiers shrunk back appalled ; and 
then his naked body, with those of Colonels Kinkski, Illo 
Niemann, and Tzertzski, were carried through the streets 
of Egra and flung into a ditch. So perished the great 
dictator of Germany ! 

Butler was made a count, Deveron a colonel, Gordon 
was created a marquis of the Empire, colonel-general of 
the Imperial army and high chamberlain of Austria; 
while Leslie, who was then a captain of the Bodyguard, 
was created Count Leslie and Lord of Neustadt, an estate 
worth 200,000 florins. He died at Vienna, field-marshal, 
governor of Sclavonia, and Knight of the Golden Fleece, 
in 1667-8. There is an engraving of him by Kilion, dated 
1637, which states that he was ambassador from Austria 
to the Sultan Mahomet IV. This embassy was so mag- 
nificent that Father Taffernier, a Jesuit, wrote a particular 
account of it. 

Butler bequeathed 3>300 to the Scottish and Irish 
colleges in Prngue. 

The famous Marquis of Montrose was in Austria in 1647 
after his defeat at Philiphaugh. In summer he was in 
Prague with the Emperor Ferdinand, who offered him a 
commission as marshal, and appointed him colonel of a 
regiment, with power to appoint all the officers : but he 
sec ms to have declined this honour, and proceeded to the 
Netherlands, prior to raising the king's standard once more 
in Scotland. 


The Leslie who figured in the Wallenstein tragedy on 
his death was succeeded in his titles and estates by a son 
of Count Patrick Leslie, James, who gave timely succour 
to Vienna when besieged by the Turks, and gave to the 
flames the town and wooden bridge of Essek (amid the 
marshes of Austrian Slavonia) when defended by the Turks, 
for which he was made a privy councillor and president 
of the Imperial Council of War. 

Patrick, Count Leslie, twelfth of the line of Balquhain, 
was privy councillor to James VII, and entailed his estate 
in 1698. (Shaw's Index.) 

Four counts of the Empire sprang from the family of 
Balquhain, whose old castle of that name, a noble square 
keep, erected in 1 530, to replace a more ancient fortress 
burned by the Fortresses in 1526, still stands in the Garioch. 
(Aberd. Coll., 4to.) 

Some Scottish adventurers took part in the recapture of 
Buda from the Turks in 1636 among them, notably, Sir 
Arthur Forbes, of the Corse family, first Earl Granard, who 
so zealously espoused the royal cause in Scotland ; George 
Hay, from Scotland, and " Lord Quberry (sic), from Scot- 
land," whose name was referred to in the recent Buda bi- 
centenary. The last given is some strange misspelling, as 
sent by the charge d'affaires to the Standard,in August, 1886. 

In 1735, John, eighteenth Earl of Crawford, joined the 
Imperial army at Bruschal on the Salzbach. He had pre- 
viously been in the Scots Greys, 7th Dragoons, and Scots 
Guards ; but finding there was no chance of distinction, 
when the provincial prejudices of the English and the 
enmity of the court were so high against Scotsmen, he le- 


signed in disgust, and was received with every mark of 
honour by Prince Eugene of Savoy, under whom Hugh, 
Viscount Primrose (of Rosebery), and Captain Dalrymple 
were also serving as volunteers. The three served in that 
expedition in October, in which their force was assailed by 
thrice its numbers, and when the Count of Nassau was 
slain and Primrose was severely wounded in the head. 
The same afternoon was fought the battle of Claussen, in 
which Lord Crawford greatly distinguished himself, and 
the French were driven across the Moselle. 

After taking a term of service with the Russian army, 
under Count Munich, and shining on more than one 
occasion in single combat with the Tartar horsemen, he 
rejoined the Austrians at Belgrade, and went to winter 
quarters with Prince Eugene's regiment at Comorra, where 
he employed himself till 1739 in drawing military plans. 

Under Marshal Wallace he was at the battle of Krotzka, 
near Belgrade, where, when leading a charge of Count 
Palfi's cuirassiers, on the 22nd July, 1739, his favourite 
black charger was shot under him, and his left thigh 
was shattered by a musket-ball. General Count Luchesie 
now ordered some grenadiers to place him on horseback, 
but they were compelled to leave him, and the gallant earl 
was found next morning by his own grooms in a deplorable 
condition, his face pale as death, but his hands still grasp- 
ing the mane of his dead charger. 

They bore him to Belgrade, but he never fully recovered 
from the effect of his wound, though the bullet was ex- 
tracted at Comorra on the Danube, to which place he sailed. 
This was in February, 1740. Proceeding up the river, he 


was conveyed to Vienna, where he arrived on the 7th May, 
still in a recumbent position, for pieces of fractured bone 
were continually coming away. 

He was able to walk on crutches for the first time in 
September, and removed to the baths at Baden, where he 
remained till August, 1741. Via Vienna and Hanover he 
reached the fortified town of Hameln on the Weser, where 
he chanced to have an interview with George II, who was 
struck with his military enthusiasm, and prevailed 
upon him to resume his duties in the British army, in 
which, in the July of 1739, he had been gazetted colonel 
and captain of the Scots Horse Grenadier Guards, and 
afterwards to the Fourth or Scots Troop of Life Guards 
all of which he commanded in brigade at Dettingen and 
Fontenoy. But he never recovered from his wounds 
received at Krotzka, and died in 1749, first colonel of the 
Black Watch. 


Earl of Crawford Field-Marshal Baron London Generals 
Grant and Reid Colonel Caldvvell Counts Hamilton and 
Lockhart Colonels Stuart and Fowler Baron Fyfe. 

IN 1742 the famous Baron London joired the Austrian 
service. Born in 1716 at Tootzen, in Livonia, he was 
descended from the Loudons of that Ilk, an important old 
Ayrshire family, a member of whom settled in the vicinity 
of Riga, where his bravery and achievements won him fiefs 
and honours, of which his successors were dispossessed by 
Charles XII of Sweden, after the peace of Oliva. During 
the reign of Charles XII the forfeited Loudons betook 
them again to the sword ; one became a captain in the 
Royal Swedish GuarJs, and his nephew, Gideon Ernest 
London, joined first, in his fifteenth year, the Russian 
infantry as a cadet, and made his first essay in arms 
when the war of the Double Election caused such a stir in 
Northern Europe. He served with the blockading force at 
Dantzig, and in 1734 his regiment formed part of the army 
sent by the Empress Anne to spread terror in Germany, 
till the peace of Vienna enabled Count Munich, with Lacy 
and others, to engage in barbarous wars elsewhere, and 
in the conquest of the Crimea as already detailed. On the 
reduction of the army, Lieutenant London offered Ms 


services to Maria Theresa, the empress- queen, and in 
passing through Berlin met several Scots with whom he 
had served under Munich, who urged him to join the King 
of Prussia. The latter affronted him by some slighting 
remark, so Loudon took service in Austria, and became in 
future wars the most formidable enemy Prussia had met 
in the field, and to attempt to detail his achievements 
would far exceed our limits. 

He obtained a command in Baron Trenck's corps of Free 
Pandours, and was at the storming of Rheinmark, when 
they put the garrison to the sword, and the invasion of 
Lorraine, where terrible deeds were done. Loudon in 
disgust quitted the regiment of Trenck and was ten years 
on garrison duty in Croatia, where he became colonel of 
Croats in 1757, and distinguished himself at Hirschfeld, on 
the frontiers of Bohemia. 

When in Croatia he spent much of his *i~ie in the study 
of geography and fortification. Having once obtained a 
great map of Germany, he spread it on the floor, and was 
found poring over it by his wife, Clara de Hagen, a Hun- 
garian lady. 

" My dear Major," said she, " still, as ever, busy with 
these horrid plans and maps." 

" They will be of service to me, my dear Clara, when I 
obtain the baton of a field-marshal of Austria." 

Then she laughed, for Loudon was then only in his thirty- 
eighth year, and the baton he referred to seemed remote 

He served at the battle of Rosbach, and in all the opera- 
tions of what was known as the " combined army" of French 


and Austrians, to clear Saxony of the Prussians. Though 
daily exposed to danger for years, a bullet-wound received 
at Zalern was the only one suffered by London in his long 
and arduous career. 

In May, Frederick invested Olmutz, which was defended 
by General Marshal, a Scotsman, while Loudon with 
Count Daun cut off the Prussian supplies. The siege was 
pressed by Marshal Keith, and Loudon was made 
lieutenant- field-marshal and Knight of Maria Theresa; 
but the siege, as we have told elsewhere, was abandoned, 
and Frederick had to oppose the Russians under Generals 
Brown and Fermor, two Scotsmen, whom he ultimately 
drove into Poland. 

Loudon, now a baron, proved one of the most famous 
leaders in the Seven Years' War, and the Count de Wallace 
was colonel of his special regiment, the Loudon Fusiliers, 
which they both led at the storming of Schwednitz in 1761. 
Previous to the attack he promised the stormers 100,000 
florins to take the place without pillage. 

"No, no!" cried the Walloon grenadiers; "lead on, 
Father Loudon ; we shall follow to glory, but take no 
money from you." 

Then Count Wallace, colonel of the Loudon Fusiliers, 
after being twice repulsed by two battalions of the regi- 
ment of Treskow, said : 

" I must win or die ! / promised Loudon remember our 
regiment bears his name, and must conquer or perish !" 

He again led them on, and the place was won. 

In this war one Austrian column under Loudon was 
led by a General Grant, another of Prussians under Fred- 


erick was led by General Read, also a Scotsman (see 
Smollett's Hist., vol. vii, etc.)- At Schwednitz there fell 
Colonel Hume Caldwell (of an old Ayrshire stock) in his 
27th year Tn 1769 he was Aulic Councillor of War and 
general c mtnanding in Moravia. 

In 1778 London was full marshal of the Empire, and 
ten years after led the armies along the frontiers of 
Croatia and Bosnia till he captured Belgrade. Tn the 
Edinburgh Advertiser for September 19, 1788, we have the 
following : 

" On the 16th August the emperor arrived at Panczova 
with a detachment of 40,000 men from the main army. 
On reaching Jabuka he ordered the troops to halt, and made 
a short harangue, exhorting them to persevere to the last 
in the glorious cause they had undertaken to defend. On 
this occasion the troops, with shouts of patriotic joy, 
assured his Majesty they would perish to a man rather 
than lay down their arms till the House of Austria was 
restored to its just rights. On the 17th the army marched 
in three columns for Cubin. 

" General Loudon took command of the Imperial army 
from General de Yins on the 18th August, and on the 
following days the Turks made attempts to force the lines, 
but were saluted with so heavy a fire as to oblige them to 
desist, leaving behind them 20 men and 25 horses killed." 

In 1790 he died in the midst of his fame the greatest 
general of the eighteenth century and was buried at his 
estate of Haderdorf in a marble sarcophagus he had brought 
from Belgrade. 

" Therein he now lies in peace, shaded by some stately 


old trees, in tbe centre of a green meadow. His funeral 
monument, which is one of great magnificence, is securely 
walled round, and among the sculpture with which the 
Austrian government adorned it can still re traced the 
shield argent charged with three escutcheons sable, the old 
heraldic cognisance which the Loudons of that Ilk bore on 
their pennons in the wars of the Scottish kings." 

In 1746 an Austrian squadron, consisting of eleven sail, 
under a Scottish Captain Forbes, was active in the opera- 
tions of the war under Maria Theresa, and when the Irish 
Count Brown at Nice was waiting with the King of Sar- 
dinia in consultation as to their combined operations, Forbes 
brought over the whole Austrian artilleiy from Genoa for 
the bombardment and capture of Mont Albano; and in 
these wars Sir William Gordon of Park, in Banfishire, who 
had escaped after Culloden, and been lieutenant-colonel 
in Lord Ogilvie's regiment, for his services to the Emperor 
of Germany, and perhaps influenced by the fact that Sir 
William's mother was the widow of George, Count Leslie 
of Balquhain won for him and his heirs the rank of 
first-class nobes in Hungary. (BurTte.) He died at Douay, 

Regarding the count's family, the Edinburgh Courant for 
1761 records the following: 

"The appeal of Charles Cajetan, Count Leslie, and 
Antonio, Count Leslie, his son, relative to the estate of 
Balquhain, determined by the House (of Peers) in favour 
of Mr. Grant, complained of two interlocutors of the Court 
of Session repelling certain objections on the part of these 
German counts against the proof led at Vienna by the said 


Peter Leslie Grant, of the place of their birth and religion, 
importing that, being aliens and Roman Catholics, they 
could not succeed by the laws of this country to any 
heritage, but that the same does, of course, descend to the 
next Protestant heir." 

In the middle of the last century Anthony, Count Hamil- 
ton, was lieutenant-general and captain-lieutenant of the 
noble German Guard of the Empire, grand bailie, minister 
plenipotentiary, privy-councillor, and receiver of the 
Order of the Knights of Malta. He died at Vienna, 24th 
March, 17 P /6. 

Twenty-six years afterwards there died an Austrian-Scot 
of great note in those days, James Lock hart Wishart of 
Lee and Carnwath, whose monument, erected near Mount 
Marl, on his estate of Dryden, at Lasswade, records that 
he was " Lord of the Bedchamber to his Imperial Majesty 
Joseph II, Emperor of Germany, Knight of the Order of 
Maria Theresa, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, and 
General of the Imperial, Royal, and Apostolic Armies. 
Died at Pisa, 6th February MDCCXC, in the LXIV. year of his 
age." His uncle, Captain Philip Lockhart, was taken 
prisoner at Preston in 1715, and barbarously shot in coJd 
blood by the troops of General Willis. Count Lockhart 
was succeeded by his son Charles, a minor ; but Dryden 
since then has passed to other families. 

In 1799, when Vienna was menaced by the French, but 
saved from impending peril by the Treaty of Leoben, 
the citadel was garrisoned by two strong battalions of the 
regiment of Stuart, of whom we know only the name, 
unless we can connect him with the noble family of Rohen- 


start. There died at Dunkeld of the effects of a mail- 
coach accident, 28th October, 1854, Charles Edward Stuart, 
Count Rohenstart, a general in the Austrian army, in his 
73rd year. 

In 1809 a Scottish officer, General Fowler, who was 
equerry to the empress, was wounded severely and taken 
prisoner at the battle of Wagram by the French on the 
6th of July ; and in 1826 Baron John Fyfe, a native of 
Edinburgh, of whom we know only the name, died at Vienna 
far advanced in years. 

There was also Colonel Graham (a brother of Gartmore), 
who lived and, we believe, died in St. Bernard's Crescent, 
Edinburgh, who in 1854 was a marshal-de-camp in the 
Austrian army, and had a horse shot under him in the war 
against Kossuth and other Hungarian patriots. He was 
a Knight of the Order of Maria Theresa. 

In 1779 Joseph, Count Murray of Melgum and Bart, of 
Nova Scotia, was counsellor of state, lieutenant-geneial 
of the armies of the emperor, general- commandant and 
captain-general of the Low Countries. 

In that year his daughter Theresa was married at 
Brussels to James, seventh Earl of Findlater and fourth 
Earl of Seafield. (Wood's Douglas, fol.) 

Count Joseph's son, Albert, born, in 1774, married 
the Countess Almeria Esterhazy von Galantha, and the 
family still exists in Austria. 

All these instances serve to show how our people won, 
by their worth, their probity, and valour, high honours, 
which, by adverse influence and political events, were deuied 
them in the land of their forefathers. 



Story of the Scotti James Crich ton Scots in Venice Curious 
Charter Graham of Buchlyvie The Wauchopes and Lord 
Drumlanrig in Sardinia, etc. 

DIFFERENCE of religion in latter times doubtless prevented 
the Scottish Soldier of Fortune from seeking service in 
Italy as elsewhere ; yet in the States thereof a few rose to 
eminence. The statement made by Sir Robert Douglas 
in his Peerage, on the authority of Fordoun and others, 
that about the year 800 the King of Scotland sent his 
brother William, with a William Douglas, to aid the 
Lombards that the former was known as William the 
Scot, and the latter founded the Scoti-Douglassi in Italy ; 
and, further, the statements to the same effect by Godscroft 
in his folio History of the Douglasses that they became 
the head of the Guelphs in Placentia, and so forth, seem 
utterly fabulous ; and yet the story is strangely endorsed 
by one or two writers, from whom we give quotations for 
what they are worth. 

Of these Scot? are also said to be descended Francesco 
Scotto or Scotti, an Italian engraver, born at Florence 
about 1760; Girolavao Scotto or Scotti, also a celebrated 
engraver, born in 1780; Stephano Scotto, a Milanese 
painter, who flourished at the end of the fifteenth and begin- 


ning of the sixteenth centuries. (See Bryant's Diet, of 
Painters, etc.} 

Citing a work called Memoire de Piacenza, the author of 
Italy and the Italian Island (3 vols., 1841) tells us that 
" Piacenza presents nothing that interests us so much as 
the memoirs of that family of Scotti, who from the position 
of wealthy citizens rose in the latter half of the thirteenth 
century to be its absolute lords by a cautious progress 
which one is almost tempted to consider nationally charac- 
teristic. For although we may be allowed to smile at the 
invented genealogy which claimed for them a descent from 
an Earl Douglas, brother of the Scottish King Achaius, 
and companion in arms of Charlemagne, yet the common 
opinion here is that their founders in Italy were really 
adventurers belonging to the border clan of Scott." 

Another writer, A. F. Drane, writing in 1880, says : 
"In Genoa, St. Catherine of Sienna and her party were 
entertained for a month by a noble lady named Orietta 
Scotta, one of Scottish origin settled in Italy, temp, of 
Charlemagne, when two brothers, Arnico and Gabriel, sons 
of William Scott, came to Genoa in 1120, and were given 
command of the Genoese troops. From Baldwin, son of 
Arnico, descended Barnabo, the husband of the Saint's 
hostess. The Scotti afterwards assumed the name and 
arms of the Centurioni." (Life of St. Catherine.} 

The story of these Italian Scotti is referred to by Gods- 
croft elsewhere, when he states that in 1619 two of them, 
named Peter and Corneilius, who had settled in Antwerp, 
sent in that year (when challenged by the burgomaster for 
putting the Douglas arms on their father's tomb) Alexander 



Seaton to William, Earl of Angus, " acknowledging their 
descent from his house, and entreating his testimonial 
thereupon," with a great deal more to the same purpose, 
including a long letter in old Italian from Marc Antonio 
Scoto, Marquis d'Agazono, dated 1622, to the same earl, 
with his family tree. 

Some 30 years before that period a Captain James Scott 
is recorded to have fought valiantly in the wars of Lom- 
bardy, particularly at the battle of Marignano, fought 
between the Swiss, the Duke of Milan, and Francis I, in 
1515. (Lives of the Queens of Scotland.) 

To come to more solid ground, we find John Wemyss, 
second son of Sir John XXI of Weymss and that ilk, went 
to the wars in Lombardy about 1547, and married a lady 
of rank and fortune in Brescia, and from him are descended 
the Counts Wemyss and other families of that surname in 
Italy (Douglas Peerage) ; and it was in 1583 that James 
Crichton, younger of Elliock, so well known as " The 
Admirable Crichton," was basely murdered at Mantua. 

Born in Cluiiy Castle, Perthshire, 1560-1, he was M.A. 
in his fourteenth year, and rapidly became the first swords- 
man, tilter, dancer, and, what was then more than all, the 
first scholar of his age, with a knowledge of twelve 
languages. His history is too well known to need rehearsal 
here. Suffice it that, dazzled by his achievements with 
sword and pen, the Duke of Mantua appointed him tutor 
to his son, Vincentio di Gonzago, a prince of turbulent and 
licentious character, for whose amusement he composed a 
comedy containing fifteen characters, all personated by 
himself. But one night during the carnival in 1283, while 


rambling through the streets with his guitar, he was 
attacked by several masked and armed men. 

One of these he disarmed with his characteristic facility ; 
the rest he put to flight. On discovering that their captain, 
who begged for life, was the prince, his pupil, he knelt and 
presented him with his sword, which the villain instantly 
plunged into Crichton's body, inflamed, it is supposed, by 
rage and jealousy, slaying him upon the spot. 

Kipps, an Englishman, was the first, of course, to call in 
question the many marvellous stories related of him ; but 
his life by Tytler proved the truth of them all ; and apar 
from that, a book printed at Venice in 1580, " for the 
Brothers Dom. and Grio. Batt Oruerra," when Crichton 
was in his twentieth year (referred to in the Scottish 
Journal of Antiquities), further proves all that has been 
attributed to him, and adds that, " a soldier at all points, 
he served two years with distinction in the French wars ; 
unrivalled in the dance and all feats of activity ; most 
dexterous in the use of arms of every description, in horse- 
manship and tilting at the ring." 

In Wishart's translation of Castruccio Bonamici's Com- 
mentaries on the late War in Italy, an unknown Scottish 
recluse, about 1640, is thus referred to by the writer, an 
officer of the regiment of Catalonian Horse. " That part 
of the Appenines lying between Modena and Lucca goes at 
present by the name of Monte di San Pelegrino, or the 
Foreigner's Mountain, a Scottish nobleman of the first rank 
having, according to tradition, lived there a solitary and 
austere life for many years." 

Sir James Scott of Rossie gained, about 1640, a high 

H 2 


reputation in the service of the Venetian Republic, when 
fighting with the Capelliti against the Germans, and was 
highly esteemed by the Doge Nicola Contarini. In 1644 
he was in the army of Montrose, and led the left wing at 
the battle of Tippermuir. By 1650 his chief patrimony of 
Rossie was the property of the laird of Inchture. (Rentall 
Boole of Perthshire, 1654.) 

He must have been dead before 1653, as Sir Eobert 
Montgomerie, Bart., of Skelmorlie, married in that year 
Anne his " second daughter and co-heiress by Antonia 
Willobie his spouse." (JEglinton Memorials.) 

He is probably one of the same family, was in the sea 
service of the same Republic in 1645, and of whom we 
might have a better account than the brief one given in a 
MS. in the Advocates' Library. A certain James Scott, 
it appears, built a vessel in the north of Scotland, described 
as of " prodigious bigness," and sailed with her to the 
Straits. He was accompanied by his brother, thus men- 
tioned : " William Scott was made a colonel at Venice, 
and his martial achievements in defence of that state 
against the Turks may well admit him to be ranked amongst 
our worthies. He became vice-admiral of the Venetian 
fleet, and the bane and terror of the Mussulman navigators. 
Whether they had galleons, galleys, galliasses, or great 
warships, it was all one to him. He set upon them all 
alike, saying the more there were the more he would kill, 
and the stronger the encounter should be, the greater should 
be his honour and the richer his prize. He oftentimes so 
swept the Archipelago of the Mussulmans that the Otto- 
man Power and the very gates of Constantinople would 


quake at the report of his victories ; and he did so ferret 
them out of all the creeks in the Adriatic Gulf, that they 
hardly knew in what part of the Mediterranean they should 
best shelter themselves from the fury of his blows. He 
died in his bed of a fever in the Isle of Candia in 1652. 
He was truly the glory of his nation and country, and was 
honoured after his death by a statue of marble, which I 
saw near the Rialto of Venice in 1659." 

Evelyn, in his diary about 1646, gives us an interesting 
account of a Scottish colonel, who had a high, if not the 
chief, command in Milan, who, hearing him and a friend 
speaking English near the cathedral, sent his servant to 
invite them to dinner next day. 

Thither they went, and found the cavaliero residing in 
a noble palace, where he had other guests, " all soldiers, 
one a Scotsman," to meet them, and said that, discovering 
they were English, he invited them to his house that they 
might be free from suspicion by the Inquisition. They had 
a sumptuous repast and plenty of tempting wine, after 
which he took them into a hall hung with splendid arms, 
many of them trophies taken with his own hand from the 
enemy. He bestowed a pair of fine pistols on Captain 
Wray, and on the latter's friend, Evelyn, "a Turkish 
bridle, woven with silk, curiously embossed with other silk 
trappings, to which hung a halfe-moone finely wrought, 
which he had taken from a basshaw he had slain. With 
this glorious spoil I rode to Paris, and after brought it to 
England." But these English visitors seemed not even to 
have asked the name of their generous host, who was 
killed next day, being thrown against a wall by a very 


spirited horse he was showing off for their amusement, in 
defiance of the advice of his groom and page. 

" This sad disaster," Evelyn adds, l< made us consult 
about our departure as soon as we could, not knowing how 
soon we might be inquired after, or engaged, the Inquisition 
being so cruelly formidable and inevitable on the least sus- 
picion. The next morning, therefore, discharging our 
lodgings, we agreed for a coach to carry us to the foot ot 
the Alpes, not a little concerned for the death of the colonel 
who had so courteously entertained us." 

Elsewhere he refers to a now unknown Scottish artist 
named Wright, " esteemed a good painter," and long resi- 
dent in Rome, and from whose brush came some pieces, 
afterwards to decorate Whitehall, etc., and whose best 
portraits were those of Lacy, the comedian, as a cavalier or 
Presbyterian minister, " and a Scotch Highlander in his 

In 1681 a singularly grave and yet grotesque warrant at 
considerable length was granted by Charles II in favour of 
Don Rostaino Cantelmi, Duke of Populi and Prince ot 
Pettorano, a Neapolitan town on a mountain near Sulmona, 
and his brother, also Duke di Populi, proving their descent 
from the kings and queens of Scotland " by a continued 
pedigree of about 330 years before the Incarnation of our 
blessed Lord to this time given at our Court at Windsor 
Castle the 25th day of August, 1681, and of our reign the 
33rd year. By his Majesty's command MORRAY." 

This is the signature of Alexander, sixth Earl of Moray, 
then Secretary of State for Scotland ; but no trace can be 
found of any parliamentary ratification at Edinburgh of 


this singular document deducing the prince's pedigree 
from Fergus I, but it is fully referred to by Litta in his 
Genealogies of Illustrious Italian families, " and is," says a 
writer, " for its absurdity, quite unique-" 

In 1767 Genera] Graham, younger of Buchlyvie, in 
Stirlingshire, died at Venice in command of the forces of 
the Republic. He was a kinsman of the Duke of Montrose, 
and brother of James Graham of Buchlyvie, one of the 
commissaries of Edinburgh. He had been formerly in 
the Dutch service, but in 1755 entered that of the Venetians. 
On the day after his death, Sir James Wright, our Resi- 
dent, and all the British subjects in Venice attended his 
funeral. The senators sent " a complimentary decree to 
his family," and ordered a bust of him to be placed in the 
arsenal. (Scots Mag., xxix.) 

In that useless and destructive war in which George I 
involved Britain for the defence of his beloved Hanover, 
two of the Wauchopes of Niddry-Marshal figured by land 
and sea in the Sardinian service. 

In the fight off Cape Passaro, in Sicily, in 1718, in the 
Spanish fleet which encountered that of Sir George Byng, 
the St. Francis Arves of 22 guns and 100 men was com- 
manded by one of the family, who, in Lediard's list (Naval 
Hist., 1735], is simply called " Andrew Wacup, a Scotch- 
man" ; but he fought his way through the British fleet, 
and his ship was one of the very few that escaped an 
action in which twelve Spanish ships were taken or burnt. 
(Schoraberg, etc.] 

In the following year there died of fever, in the camp of 
Raiidazzo, at the foot of Mount Etna in Sicily, Andrew, 


son of Sir George Seton of Garleton, a sub-lieutenant in 
the regiment of Irlanda, lato that of Wauchope of Niddry- 
Marshal. (Salmon's Chron., etc.) 

The latter, with his brother John, were both generals in 
the Spanish army, which was then attempting to master 
the Austrian dominions in Italy, and he was governor of 
Cagliari, the principal town in Sardinia. 

Among the Scotsmen in the army of Charles Ema- 
nuel III, King of Sardinia, were General Paterson, who 
held a high command at Turin, and Henry, Earl of Drum- 
lanrig, eldest son of the Duke of Queensberry, who received 
,20,000 for his share in achieving the Union. 

After serving two campaigns under the Earl of Stair, he 
entered the Sardinian army, with which he served in three 
campaigns under Charles Emanuel III, who was enlarg- 
ing his territories by alliances with France, Spain, and 
Austria. The earl gave proofs of a high military genius, 
particularly at the siege of Coni, a fortified city in Pied- 
mont, in consequence of which his Sardinian Majesty 
desired his ambassador at the British court to wait upon 
the Duke of Queensberry, and return him thanks for the 
services of his son in course of that protracted war. 

He left the Sardinian army in 1747 for that of the 
States of Holland, for whom he raised a Scottish regiment ; 
and seventeen years afterwards in 1764 General Pater- 
son qnitted his command at Turin and came home to die 
in Edinburgh. 

Here it may not be without interest to remark that, 
when Cardinal York died in 1807, the representation of the 
royal line of Stuart became vested in the King of Sardinia, 


eldest son of Victor Amadeus III, grandson of Victor 
Amadens, King of Sardinia, by Anne his wife, daughter of 
Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, daughter of Charles I, 
King of Scotland and England, as the nearest heir of line 
to the British throue. 



The Thistle at Damascus " Bothwell Bank" Heart of 
James I A Campbell among the Turks Adventures of 
Thomas Keith, Aga of the Mamelukes " Osman " the 
Drummer Four Scots Pashas. 

IN that scarce and quaint topographical work, the Atlas Geo- 
graphicus, we are told that there was to be seen in 1712, in a 
tower of the city wall of Damascus, near the gate of 
St. Paul, two fleurs-de-lys and two lions carved in stone, 
" and near each of them a great thistle. This was probably in 
honour of some Scottish princes who went with the 
French to the Holy Land. From hence some think the 
French built the tower, but we rather believe that the 
Turks brought the stones from some other place once 
possessed by the French." 

We give this story for what it is worth. The thistle 
may have been a relic of the Scottish crusaders (of whom 
we may be tempted to take note at another time), though 
Bowring and other travellers do not mention it ; but a more 
interesting anecdote, Scoto- Syrian, is one connected with 
the city of Jerusalem, and related by Richard Yerstegan, 
in his Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, Antwerp, 1673, 
12mo, in the chapter on the " Surnames of Ancient 
Families," and which we give in his own words : 


" So it fell out of late years that an English gentleman 
travelling in Palestine, not far from Jerusalem, as be passed 
through a country town heard by chance a woman sitting 
at the door dandling her child to sing, 

" O Bothwell Bank, thou bloomest fair." 

The gentleman hereat exceedingly wondered, and forth- 
with in English saluted the woman, who joyfully answered 
him, and said she was right glad to see a gentleman 
of our isle ; and told him she was a Scotchwoman, and 
came first from Scotland to Venice, and from Venice 
thither, where her fortune was to be the wife of an officer 
under the Turk, who being at that instant absent, and might 
soon return, she entreated the gentleman to stay, the which 
he did ; and she, for country's sake, to show herself more 
kind and bountiful to him, told her husband at his home- 
coming that the gentleman was her kinsman, whereupon 
her husband entertained him, and at his departure gave 
him divers things of good value." 

From the Exchequer Eolls of Scotland we learn that 
the heart of James I, in 1437, was removed from his body, 
like that of Robert I, and taken on a pilgrimage to the 
East a journey of which no details are given beyond the 
payment of 90 "to a certain knight of the Order of 
iSt. John of Jerusalem for bringing (back) the heart of the 
illustrious prince of blessed memory, James, the late King 
of Scotland, from Rhodes to the Carthusian monastery near 
the burgh of Perth, where the body of the said prince is 
buried." Although the return of the king's heart is thus 
chronicled, we are left in ignorance of the nature and com- 


position of the expedition with which it was sent from 
Scotland to Palestine. 

From this date to the last year of the nineteenth century 
seems somewhat of a leap ; but we read that in 1800, when 
the government sent an army under Abercrombie to expel 
the French from Egypt, in the last days of December, 
when, with other troops, the 92nd Highlanders at Marmorice 
Bay were waiting reinforcements from the Turks, among 
the latter who came particularly to see the former was an 
Osmanli officer of stately and dignified appearance. 

He proved to be a gentleman named Campbell, from 
Kintyre, who, early in life, had been so affected by the 
death of a friend whom he had killed in a sudden quarrel 
near Fort- William, that he had wandered abroad, and 
ultimately joined the Turkish army, in which he had risen 
to be a general of artillery under the Sultan Selim. " When 
he saw our men in the dress to which he had been accus- 
tomed in his youth, and heard the bagpipes playing," says 
the Caledonian Mercury, " the remembrance of former 
years, and of his country, so affected him that he burst into 
tears. The astonishment of the soldiers may be imagined 
when they were addressed in their own language the 
Gaelic, which he had not forgotten by a turbaned Turk 
in full costume, with a white beard flowing down to his 

He sent off several boat-loads of fruit to the Gordon 
Highlanders, of whose colonel, the gallant John Cameron 
of Fassifern, he made several inquiries about relations who 
were then living at Campbelton. " They entered into 
correspondence with him," says the Rev. Mr. Clerk in his 


privately printed memoir of Cameron, " but we have not 
learned what was the close of his career, whether he re- 
visited his native land or died in his adopted country." 

We now come to the story of one whose adventures, if 
related at length, would surpass any romance ever written, 
that of Thomas Keith, who became the last Aga of the 
Mamelukes and governor of Medina Medinet-el-Ndbi (or 
the city of the prophet), yet whose name is utterly unknown 
in his own country ! 

Thomas Keith, a record of whose service was furnished 
to us by the War Office, was a native of Edinburgh, where 
he served his apprenticeship to a gunsmith be fore ne enlisted, 
on the 4th of August, 1804, in the 2nd battalion of the 78th 
Highlanders, commanded by Major- General Mackenzie 
Frazer of Castle Frazer ; and soon after he went with the 
corps, under Lieutenant-Colonel MacLeod of Gienis, to 
join the army in Sicily under Sir John Stuart, the Count 
of Maida, where he took part in the victorious battle of 
that name, and the subsequent capture of Crotona on the 
Gulf of Taranto. 

Keith, proving a smart, intelligent, and well-educated 
soldier, was appointed armourer to the Ross-shire Buffs, 
now ordered to form a part of the expedition fitted out in 
Sicily in 1807 to occupy Alexandria, to compel the Turks 
to defend their own territories, and relieve our allies, the 
Russians, of the pressure they put upon them. 

Like most British expeditions, this one under Mackenzie 
Fraser proved too slender ; it consisted only of the 20th 
Light Dragoons, a regiment then clad in blue with orange 
facings ; the 31st, 35th, and 78th Regiments, with that of 


De Bolle and Les Chasseurs Brittaniques, a mixed corps, 
formed of deserters from all countries. 

On the 18th of March General Fraser disembarked this 
force near the Arabs' Tower, westward of Alexandria, and 
began his march for the latter, with the view of attacking 
it and keeping open a communication with the naval 
squadron ; but he was either ignorant of the actual strength 
of the Turkish forces in and about the city, or that the 
Mameluke Beys, though in arms apparently against the 
new viceroy, Mehemet Ali, now were ready to follow him 
against the British troops. 

Alexandria was captured, but then followed our defeat 
at Kosetta (or Raschi<T) on the Bolbiton branch of the Nile, 
where General Patrick Wauchope of Edmonston fell, with 
185 officers and men of the 31st Regiment alone, and next 
day the heads of these were displayed on stakes along the 
road that leads towards Tantah. 

Another disastrous affair when Keith fell into the 
hands of the enemy followed at the village of El Hamet, 
four miles south-west of Rosetta, on the banks of the canal 
that unites the Nile with Lake Etko. There Colonel Mac- 
leod, with five companies of his Highlanders and two of 
the 35th, with a few of the 20th Dragoons, took post on 
the embankment, when in the mist, on the morning of the 
21st April, they were furiously attacked by an overwhelming 
force of Albanian cavalry and infantry, that came down 
the Nile in 70 large river-boats. MacLeod formed a 
square, but the rush of the foe proved too great for him, 
with their lances, matchlocks, and yataghans. A company 
of the 35th and another of the Ross-shire Buffs were cut 


down though making a desperate resistance, and every 
officer and man of both companies perished, save some 22 
who escaped, and Keith and a Highland drummer who 
were taken prisoners. Seven Albanians were slain in suc- 
cession by the claymore of Sergeant John MacRae of the 
78th ere his head was cloven from behind by a yataghan ; 
and, ere Lieutenant MacRae fell, six men of his surname, 
all from Kintail, perished by his side. MacLeod also fell, 
and the Albanians were seen caracolling their horses -on all 
sides, each with a soldier's head on the point of a lance. 
(General Stewart.} 

Keith with a few survivors was dragged to Cairo, where 
450 heads, hewn from MacLeod's men, were exposed in the 
market-place, with every mark of barbarous contempt ; and 
there he became the property of Ahmed Aga, who pur- 
chased him for a few coins from an Albanian lancer. 
Ahmed, fortunately for Keith, conceived a strong fancy for 
him, and finding all chance of escape utterly hopeless, 
according to the means of locomotion in those days, he 
and the drummer adopted the turban Keith taking 
the name of Ibrahim Aga and the latter that of Osman, 
under which we shall have to refer to him again when in 
old age. 

Keith had soon to quit the service of his new friend 
Ahmed. A Mameluke of the latter, a renegade Sicilian, 
having insulted him, swords were drawn, and the young 
Scotsman killed the Sicilian on the spot, and, to escape the 
consequences, fled to the favourite wife of the Viceroy, 
Mehemet Ali, and procured her protection. She gave him 
a purse of money, and sent him disguised to her second 


son, Tusoun Pasha, born at Kavala, in Macedonia (where 
Mehemet's father had been head of the police), and he took 
Keith into his service, pleased to find that he was a skilful 
armourer and master of the Arabic language. 

Though little else than a boy, Tusoun (we are told by 
the author of Egypt and Mohammed All) had a fiendish 
temper, and on Keith incurring his sharp displeasure by 
some omission of duty, he ordered the latter to be assassin- 
ated in bed, and beset the house with armed slaves, whose 
instructions were to mutilate him and bring away his head. 
But Keith was prepared for them ! 

Ere they could enter his room he was out of the door- 
way, which he had barricaded, and which he defended for 
half-an-hour with his sword and pistols, till a pile of dead 
lay before him ; then seizing a lucky moment, when they 
shrank from that ghastly barrier, he leaped into the street, 
and brandishing his bloody sabre, once more sought the 
protection of Tusoun's mother. 

She effected a reconciliation between them, and the 
savage young prince, in admiration of his courage, 
appointed him Aga of his body of Mamelukes, a post of 
importance, in which he displayed many brilliant qualities. 
" In the bearded Aga of the Mamelukes, who shaved his head 
in conformity to the rules of the Prophet, it might have 
been difficult to recognise the kilted Ross-shire Buff of a 
year or so before ; but now his former military experience 
made him of vast service in infusing a species of discipline 
among the Mamelukes and other wild and barbarous horse- 
men in the Pasha's army, while his knowledge of all kinds 
of weapons, his bodily strength, bravery, and hardihood, 


made him almost their idol. Thus he stood high among 
the Agas of the Pasha of Egypt." 

Freed from the British, the latter now began to adopt 
warlike measures against the Wahabees, who had plundered 
many caravans, and forbidden people to pray in their 
mosques for his master the Sultan being in the East not 
unlike the Puritans under Cromwell. 

It was on the 1st March, 1811, just before Tusoun was 
to begin his march against these people in Arabia, that the 
dreadful massacre of the Mameluke Beys and their soldiers 
took place at Cairo. Keith escaped that event, warned, it 
is supposed, by Tusoun to absent himself, as he was to 
command the latter's cavalry ; but, if in the capital, he 
must have been cognisant of that awful scene in the citadel, 
when (as Ebers relates) from every window and loophole 
musketry and cannon volleyed on these gorgeously- 
accoutred horsemen, till hundreds with their horses lay in 
the narrow way wallowing in blood, though some snatched 
sword and pistol but in vain, and in unutterable confusion 
men and chargers, living, dying, and dead, rolled in one 
mighty mass at first shouting and screaming, then 
silently convulsive, and more silent and still, and 480 lives 
were quenched, one alone escaping by leaping his horse 
over the terrific rampart Ameer Bey. 

Leading Tusonn's cavalry, as Ibrahim Aga, Thomas 
Keith, then only in his eighteenth year, had under him 
800 sabres, chiefly Bedouins, while the infantry, 2,000 
Arnaouts in the kilt, were led by Saleh Bey. In October 
they attacked Yembo, on the Red Sea, and Keith's 
Bedouins pillaged the town. In January, 1812, Tasoun 



and Keith set out to attack the city of Medina, and on 
their march by the sandy caravan route, after capturing 
Bedr-Honein and Safra, in a narrow defile between two 
rugged mountains, they were attacked by more than 20,000 
fanatical Wahabees. 

The infantry took to flight, the Bedouins followed fast, 
all abandoning the prince save Keith and one other horse- 
man. The three broke, sword in hand, through the enemy, 
reached the camp in the rear at Bedr-Honein, and escaped 
to the Red Sea, the whole shore of which was now swept 
by the victorious Wahabees ; but Keith for his fidelity 
in the Pass of Jedeida was appointed treasurer to Mehemet 
Ali, by orders from whom he lavished gold to detach the 
Bedouins from the Wahabees, against whom Tusoun 
marched again in 1812, accompanied by Keith. 

They stormed Medina, the latter leading the Arnaouts, 
sword in hand, in his twentieth year. " At Medina," says 
the History of Arabia, " he fought with courage, being 
the first man who mounted the breach, and after dis- 
tinguishing himself on many other occasions he was made 
governor of the city in 1815." But nowhere did he do so 
much than in the repulse of the Turks before Taraba, 
when 14,000 of them were killed or wounded. Keith 
captured a cannon in a charge, and served it with his own 
hands. In 1816 he was in command at Mecca, near 
where, on one occasion, 5,000 human heads were piled 
before the tent of the victorious Mehemet. In the cavalry 
fight at El Bass, Keith, while succouring Tusoun, slew four 
with his sabre in quick succession, but was unhorsed, cut 
to pieces, and beheaded on the spot. 


His comrade, " Osman" the drummer, long survived 
these events, and the strongest feature of his character, 
says one who met him, was his intense nationality. " In 
vain men called him Effendi ; in vain he swept along 
in Eastern robes, and rival beauties adorned his harem. 
The joy of his heart lay in this: that he had three 
shelves of books, and that these books were thorough-bred 
Scotch; and, above all, I recollect that he prided him- 
self upon the ' Edinburgh Cabinet Library.' " (Traces oj 

So lately as 1854, Colonel Cannon, son of the Rev. Dr. 
Cannon, minister of Maine and Strathmartin, and Colonel 
Ogilvy of Tanuadyce, entered the Turkish service. The 
former, known as Behram Pasha, commanded the Turkish 
Light Division at Silistria while Naysmith was there, and 
also at the battle of Giurgevo. 

Later still, in 1868, Mr. H. E. Frost, a native of Aber- 
deen, held a high office in the gun-factories at Constanti- 
nople under Sir John Anderson, and for his great services 
and improvements in gunnery was made brigadier-general, 
with the rank of pasha ; " and, commenting on a sabre 
d'honneur to Abdul Kerim Pasha, the Invalide Russe 
declares that the real conqueror of Servia was not Abdul, 
but Arthur Campbell Pasha, a military agent, who, with 
six British officers, was the real leader of the Turkish 
troops." (The World, 1877.) In 1886 Borthwick Pasha 
was appointed a member of the Gendarmerie Commission ; 
and in the Scotsman for August, 1876, we read that Blacque 
Bey, a Catholic, then director of the Press at Constan- 
tinople, and formerly the Turkish Minister at Washington, 



is of Scottish descent from a Mr. Black who followed King 

ames VII to France. 

European discipline was first introduced into the 
Persian army by two Scottish officers during the early 

art of the present century. The first Persian artillery 
corps was organised by Lieutenant Lindsay of the Madras 
army, who had every difficulty thrown in his way by the 
prejudices of the Mahomedans. But the then Shah 
gave him unlimited powers. The serbaz, or infantry, were 
organised by Major Christie of the Bombay army, an officer 
of the greatest merit, who inspired them with an esprit de 
corps never before known in Persia. The surgeon-general 
of the army of the Prince Abbas Mirza, when encamped on 
the frontiers of Yam, in Azerbijan, in 1810 and 1816, was 
Dr. Campbell, a Scotsman, as Morier states in his Travels; 
and it was from these officers that the Persian buglers and 
trumpeters acquired the British "calls" in the field, the 
use of which by them perplexed our troops particularly 
the Ross-shire Buffs at the Battle of Khooshab, when Sir 
James Outram so thoroughly routed the Persians under 
Shooja-ool-Moolk. In 1831 Dr. Littlejohn, another Scot, 
on leaving India, entered the service of Daood Pasha at 
Bagdad, and, accompanying the army of Abbas Mirza in 
the Kermon campaign, commanded the garrison of Azer- 
bijan, but was compelled to surrender to the Firman 
Firma, after which he remained to the day of his death at 

In 1840 Sir Henry Lindsay-Bethune, Bart., of Kilcon- 
quhar, was a general officer in the Persian service, and a 
to j-ior-general in Asia. 


In 1821 the governor of Tripolizza, which under the 
Turks had been the capital of the Morea, was Sir Thomas 
Gordon Knight, previously an officer of the Scots Greys. 
The town had been sacked by the Greeks in the same 
year. On the breaking out of the war between France 
and Russia he had served as a volunteer in the army of the 
latter, and was an A.D.C. on the retreat from Moscow. He 
afterwards returned to Scotland, and then taking 20,000 
with him, went to the Morea to fight, for Greece, and is 
"now at the head of Yps Tlonti's staff and commandant 
of Tripolizza." (Ed. Weekly Journal, No. 1253.) 


The Sinclairs of Roslin Stuart of Ardgowan Learned Scots 
in Copenhagen The Earl of Bothwell : his marriage with 
a Norwegian Lady Wiffert's Levy Scoto-Danish Explo- 
ration of Greenland Numerous Scotch adventurers in 
Denmark Danish Count killed by a Scottish officer. 

IN the times of which we chiefly write, when our country- 
men rose to rank and power in nearly every European court 
and army, the favourite creed and toast of these wan- 
derers were, " Peace at home and plenty wars abroad," 
while the old Highland version was, we are told, " Lord, 
turn the world upside down, that honest fellows may make 
bread out of it." 

In northern Europe, Denmark was a. favourite field for 
some of these military spirits. 

In 1379, Haco, King of Denmark, created Sir Henry 
Sinclair of Roslin, Earl of Orkney, a title confirmed by 
Robert II, while these isles were still a portion of Scandi- 
navia. Sir Henry was the only son of that Sir William 
Sinclair who perished in battle against the Moors at Teba 
in 1331. According to Sir Robert Douglas, he married 
Florentina, daughter of the King of Denmark ; and Nisbet 
in his Heraldry adds that he was made by Christian I, 
Lord of Shetland, Duke of Oldenburgh (in Holstein), a state- 
ment doubted ; and that he was Knight of the Thistle, the 


Cockle, and the Golden Fleece the gift of the different 
sovereigns of these orders. The old tradition, that before 
one of this family died the beautiful chapel of Roslin 
appeared to be full of light, is supposed to be of Norse origin, 
imported by them from Scandinavia, as the tomb-fires of 
the North are mentioned in many of the Sagas. 

In 1469 James III married Margaret, daughter of tfye 
King of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, whose dowry was 
Orkney and Shetland. 

In 1506, when Sir David Sinclair directed his body to 
be buried in the cathedral of St. Magnus, at Kirkwall, his 
golden chain of office as a chief captain of the palace of 
Bergen, which post he held with that of " Governor of Het- 
land," under the Scottish crown, was bequeathed to the 
altar of St. George, in the Domskerke of Roes Kilde, the 
ancient capital of Denmark. 

In 1506 we find James IV interfering in behalt of his 
ally, John, King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, against 
whom the latter country had revolted, and despatching 
conciliatory letters to the Archbishop of Upsala and the 
citizens of Lubeck, who were about to assist the Swedes 
letters which were models of elegance and vigour (Pinkerton) 
and by his influence the insurrection was suppressed ; but 
when war with England came, in 1513-15, inspired only by 
ingratitude, neither Denmark nor France responded to the 
Scottish government. Yet, in 1518, Christian II applied 
to it for assistance in suppressing an insurrection which had 
broken out among his Swedish subjects, and asked for 
1,000 Highlanders. This request was declined, on the plea 
that the disposition of the English court was uncertain. In 


this matter Christian sent as his ambassador Alexander 
Kinghorn, a Scottish physician, established in Denmark. 

In 1519, however, a body of Scottish troops, with plenty 
of ammunition, was sent to Copenhagen under James 
Stewart of Ardgowan to fight in that war which saw 
the massacre of Stockholm, the adventures of Gustavus 
Vasa, and the termination of the Union of Calmar. In the 
dead winter of 1520 the army under Otto Krumpe, 
composed of Germans, Scots, and French, passed the Sound ; 
and fought the peasantry undev Sture, who was slain by 
a cannon-ball. The Swedes were cut to pieces, and all who 
fell were refused the rites of Christian burial, and Chris- 
tian was crowned King at Stockholm, where he placed the 
Scottish and German troops in garrison ; but the tyran- 
nical conduct of Christiern (or Christian), which ulti- 
mately led to his deposition, and the piratical seizure by 
Danish privateers of a rich merchant-ship belonging to 
Leith, completely alienated his Scottish allies, who returned 
with the Laird of Ardgowan (Epist. Reg. Scot., etc.), whose 
representative is now Sir Michael S. Stewart, Bart., of Ard- 
gowan and Blackball. 

With the army of which they formed a part, Paraselsus 
was the principal physician. The capital of Denmark (says 
Schiern) " had, as we learn from ' a grace for the Scottish 
nation,' issued in 1539 by Christian III, an entire guild of 
Scotsmen, which, among other institutions, formed an 
hospital in Copenhagen for ' their sick countrymen,' and 
during the first half of the century many of these were 
professors of the university there, to wit Peter David 
and Johannis Maccabeus (John MacAlpin) for theology ; 


Alexander Kinghorn, medicine ; Thomas Alame, philo- 
sophy ; while many Danish students were attending the 
University of Aberdeen." Thus the fugitive Both well had 
doubtless a warm welcome in Denmark in 1560. 

Before this crisis in his misfortunes, Bothwell had been 
in Denmark, and there had met the Lady Anne, whose 
father, Christopher Throndson (of the Rustung family), 
was admiral of Christian' III, and whose mother, Karine, 
was daughter of the deacon of Trondheim. 

In Resen's Annals of Frederick If, under date June, 
1560, information is given that the Lord James, Earl of 
Bothwell, High Admiral of Scotland, came to Denmark, 
and was well received by the king, by whom and the Duke 
of Holstein he was conducted through Jutland, as he wished 
to travel in Germany. In the same year he was in France. 

Anne complained that Bothwell " had taken her from 
her fatherland and home into a foreign country, away from 
her parents, and would not hold her as his lawful wife, 
which with hand, mouth, and letters he had promised to 
do," at the time when it was rumoured at home he was 
making a rich match in Denmark. (F. Shiern, Life of 

Though the Earl of Bothwell, who was latterly the evil 
star of Mary's life, was not a soldier of fortune, his con- 
nection with Norway and Denmark is so little if at all 
known in Scotland, that we maybe pardoned for inserting 
it here. 

In Suhm's Samlinges, or Collections for the History of 
Denmark, we find it stated that the famous or infamous 
earl was married early in life to a Norwegian lady, Anne, 


daughter of Christopher Throndson, prior to his marriage 
with Lady Jean Gordon, of the house of Huntly, and that 
his possessing, through the former, certain estates in Orkney 
was reason for his being made duke of these Isles in 1567. 

After his flight from Orkney, and his defeat at sea by 
the gallant Kirkcaldy of Grange, Bothwell sailed into Kar- 
mesund, a harbour, when he was found by Captain Christian 
Alborg, commander of a Danish warship named the Biornen, 
or Great Bear, who demanded his licences for sailing an 
armed ship in Danish waters, and, as he failed to pro- 
duce them, compelled the earl to accompany him up 
the Jelta Fiord to Bergen. Captain Alborg in his decla- 
ration records that " among the Scottish crew there was 
one disguised in old and patched boatswain's clothes, who 
stated himself to be the chief ruler of all Scotland." 

This was the earl, with whom he reached the castle of 
Borgen, or Bergenhaus, on a tongue of land in the Bye- 
fiorden. The governor of the fortress, a wealthy Danish 
lord named Erick Bosenkrantz, appointed a committee 
of twenty-four gentlemen to interrogate the prisoner. 
These met on the 23rd September, 1567. Among them 
were the bishop and four councillors of Bergen, from 
whom Bothwell obtained permission to reside in the city. 

Magister Absalom Beyer, the pastor of Bergen, who left 
behind him a diary entitled The Chapter Book, running 
from 1533 to 1570, recorded therein the following, which 
is inserted by Suhm in his Samlinges : 

" 1567, September 2. Came in (to Bergen) Royal 
David, of which Christian Alborg is captain. He had 
captured a Scottish noble, James Hepburn, Earl of Both- 


well, Duke of Orkney and Shetland, who had been wedded 
to the Queen of Scotland. He was suspected to have been 
in the plot against the king's life. The council of the 
kingdom having revolted against the queen, this earl 
escaped, and has come hither to Norway. 

" 1567, September 17. I upbraided the Lady Anne, 
daughter of Christopher Throndson, that this Earl of Both- 
well had taken her from her native country, and yet would 
not keep her as his lawful wife, which he had promised to 
do, with hand, mouth, and letters, which letters she caused to 
to be read before him ; and whereas he has three wives 
living first, herself; secondly, another in Scotland, from 
whom he has bought (divorced ?) himself ; and thirdly, 
Queen Mary. The Lady Anne opined ' that he was good 
for nothing.' Then he promised her an annual rent from 
Scotland, and a ship with all her anchors and cordage 

" September 25. The earl went to the castle, when 
Erick Rosenkrantz did him great honour. 

" September 30. The earl departed on board the David 
and was carried captive to Denmark, where he yet remains 
in the castle of Malmo, at this time, 1568. 

" October 10, 1567. Part of the earl's men were 
returned to Scotland on board a small pink which Erick 
Rosenkrantz had lent them, and it is said they were all put 
to death on their landing." 

The only discrepancy here is in one statement of the 
pastor and the committee : the former calls the Danish 
ship the David, and the latter the Biornen ; but perhaps 
Captain Alborg commanded two so-named. 


Other passages in the Chapter Book record that in 1 563 
the Lady Anne moved in the best circle in the province, 
which she could not have done as Both well's mistress; 
and that she was known as the Skottifruen, or Scottish lady. 
Her second sister, Dorothy, was married to John Stewart, a 
gentleman of Shetland ; and her third, Elsie, was thrice 
married the last time to Axel Mouatt, a Scottish gentle- 
man settled in Norway. 

The royal order issued by King Frederick for imprison- 
ing Bothwell in Malmo was issued from Fredericksborg, 
28th December, 1567. (Les Affairs du Comte de Bodeul.} 

He lived two years after his well-known confession, and 
died in the fortress of Dragsholm, on the northern coast of 
Zealand, between Halbek and Kallondsborg, in April, 1578, 
and was interred in the church of Faareville. 

According to the Privy Seal Register, Axel Wiffirt, a 
servant of the King of Denmark, Frederick II, was licensed 
to levy 2,000 soldiers in Scotland, and to convey them 
away armed as coulvreniers on foot " as they best can pro- 
vide them," to serve the Danish monarch in his war against 
the Swedes. The accoutrements of these troops were a 
habergeon with sleeves, a matchlock, salade, sword, and 
dagger. This was in July, 1568. 

In 1571, Crawford states in his Memoirs that Captain 
Michael Wemyss, an experienced soldier, was coming from 
Denmark with his company, consisting of a hundred men, 
to serve under the Earl of Morton against the adherents of 
Queen Mary : probably the former were some of Axel 
Wiffirt's levy. 

During Bothwell's captivity in Denmark a Scottish 


officer named Captain John Clark made a great figure 
there. He had commanded a body of soldiers in the 
insurrection which ended at Carberry Hill; and in the 
subsequent autumn passed, with 80 Scots, ; uto the service 
of Frederick II, who on the 15th June, 1564, gave him a 
commission, dated at Bordesholm, over 206 Scottish cavalry. 
He is described by Resen as a brave and well- trained captain, 
who, with his lieutenant, David Stuart, after a bloody 
encounter, stormed the castle of Halmstad, which com- 
manded the Kattegat, from the Swedes. In a letter dated 
Eoskilde, Oct., 1568, he styles himself" I, John Clark, 
commander of the Scottish military detachments" (Schiern), 
when engaging to produce the murderers of Darnley to the 
Scottish government. 

In 1569, he with his Scottish troops was quartered at 
Londskrona, on the coast. His lieutenant then was 
Andrew Armstrong. They quarrelled with Frederick II 
about commissariat matters, Clark demanding 17,000 
dollars on his discharge ; and for this and other matters he 
was summoned to appear for examination at Copenhagen, 
before a court of which Alexander Durham, Richard 
Scougal, and Cagnioli, a kinsman ofRiccio, were members . 
while his " Scottish Riflemen," to the number of 300 or 
more, were nearly perishing of hanger in Jutland the 
reward of their service during Frederick's Seven Years* 

Clark died in 1575, a prisoner of state, in the castle of 
Dragsholm, in Denmark ; the king of which had come, 
says Schiern, " to regard the Scottish soldiers with a 
strange dislike." 


"In 1605 the King of Denmark sent three ships, of 
which John Cunningham, a Scotsman, was admiral, to 
Greenland. They went a great way up Davis' Straits. 
In a place called Cunningham's Ford they found stones, 
out of a hundredweight of which they extracted 26 ounces 
of fine silver. They brought with them three of the 
natives of Greenland to Denmark." (Atlas Geograpliicus, 
vol i.) 

During the reigns of seven kings, traces of the formei 
had been lost, having become inaccessible by floating ice. 
The fiord and a cape still bear the name of Cunningham. 

Many Scots now went to Denmark. A Highland regi- 
ment, raised among the Mackays, embarked for service 
there in March, 1625, for the service of King Christian. 
In June, Sir James Leslie levied another of 1,000 men, and 
Captain Alexander Seaton raised 500 more. The forces ot 
Leslie and Mack ly soon mustered in all 4,400 men ; and 
a letter of Philip Burlamachi, a London merchant, shows 
that he paid, by the king's order, 3,000 for their transport 
from Scotland to Hamburg. 

In 1626 the king paid 8,000 to the Earl of Nithsdale, 
the Lord Spynie, and Sir Jamos Sinclair of Murkle for 
levying three regiments of 3,000 men each " for his unkell 
the King of Denmark's service," making 13,400 soldiers sent 
by Scotland to that country in two years. In three years 
Mackay's regiment had 1,000 men and 30 officers killed or 

Colonels Sir Donald Mackay, Seaton, and Forbes, 
wounded at Oldenburg ; Captains Boswal and Learmouth 
of Balcomie, killed at Boitzenburg ; Sir Patrick M'Ghie, 


Forbes of Tulloch and Munro, wounded at Oldenburg; 
Forbes and Carmichael killed at Bredenburg ; Mackenzie 
of Kildare and Kerr, wounded at Eckernfiord ; Lieutenant 
Martin, killed at Boitzenburg, and six others at Sfcralsund 
and elsewhere ; seven ensigns were wounded at Oldenburg 
and one at Stralsund, where the quarter-master, chaplain, 
and 500 Highlanders fell. (Munro' 8 Expedition with 
Mackay's Regiment, fol., 1637) 

" The regiment received colours whereon his Majesty 
(Christian IV) would have the officers to carry the Danish 
cross, which the officers refusing, they were summoned to 
compeare before his Majestie at Baynesburg to know the 
reason of their refusal." Captain Robert Ennis was sent 
home to learn the wish of James VI, " whether or no they 
might carrie, without reproach, the Danish Crosse on 
Scottish Colours. Answer was returned that they should 
obey the orders of him they served." (Ibid.) 

The escort of the Duke of Holstein's ambassadors to 
Muscovy and Persia in 1637 would seem to have been 
mostly Scottish soldiers, and one of them, a sergeant named 
Murray, distinguished himself amid a brawl that ensued in 
the Persian capital, when, among several others, a Danish 
gunner was killed as he was in the act of levelling a cannon 
against the enemy. 

Sergeant Murray, " being eager to avenge his death, 
charged the natives so furiously that he slew five or six of 
them, till, an arrow taking him directly in the breast, he 
plucked it out, and, having killed another with his firelock, 
fell dead upon the spot." (Voyaye du Chev. Ckardin, etc.) 

Sir Thomas Gray, one of the many Scots who in several 


capacities served Christian IV, was military governor of 
the castle of Bergen, where, in 1647, he hospitably enter- 
tamed the fugitive Marquis of Montrose, who went from, 
there across the Norwegian Alps to obtain an interview 
with Christian IV. 

At the close of the century the chief huntsman of 
Frederick II was a Scotsman named Graham, when the 
latter sumptuously entertained Queen Elizabeth's envoy, 
Mr. Vernon, at Yagersburg, a few miles from Copenhagen, 
as we are told in Travels through Denmark in 1702. 

Under Christian VII the governor and commandant of 
Rendsborg, a strong border fortress between Holstein and 
Schleswig, was Sir Robert Keith, Bart., of Ludquhairn, a 
major-general in the Danish army, and there he died on 
the 14th January, 1771. He was a gallant veteran, and 
had been A.D.C. to his kinsman, Marshal Keith, for 
many years. 

The killing of the Danish Count Eantzan Aschberg by a 
Scottish officer made some noise in Europe in November, 
1773. The count was concerned in some way with the 
administration of Struenzee, who so soon became hateful 
to the nobility and cabinet, and whom a plot to overthrow 
had been formed, under the queen-mother, by which he 
was ultimately disgraced and brought to the scaffold, with 
his friend Count Brand. 

The cause of Rantzau's death was involved in some 

Before leaving his seat of Aschberg he received a letter 
without any signature, informing him not to set out on a 
journey he intended, as a certain person would follow, and 


certainly slay him on the road. Disdaining this anonymous 
hint, the count departed for Switzerland, whence he was 
travelling to Spain by way of France. When on the 
frontier of the former country he was suddenly confronted 
by a Scotsman, Lieutenant Osborne, of the Danish service, 
who stopped his carriage on the highway and offered him 
a brace of pistols, desiring him to choose one and fight a 
fair duel, " as he owed him satisfaction." 

The count, having no second with him, refused -to fight, > 
on which Osborne shot him through the head and rode 
away. "As the count," says a print of the time, "was 
brought up at the court of Denmark, and consequently 
knew the secret history of the Danish cabinet ; his journey, 
in the present critical period, to France and Spain, after 
his falling into disgrace ; his being killed thus by a zealous 
Scotsman, and the notice taken of the matter by the courts 
of France, cause his death, attended with all these circum- 
stances, to make a great deal of noise." 

We have not traced Osborne's career further in this 
matter ; but, as in Sweden, many Scottish names are still 
to be found in Denmark ; thus, in March, 1886, we find 
the Danish frigate Eyen is commanded by Captain D. Mnc- 
Dougall, who exchanged salutes with our batteries on 
the 3rd of that month t Portsmouth, when sailing from 
Naples to Copenhagen. 


The Expedition of Douglas The Earl of Argyll Moodie of 
Melsetter Don Pedro Stuart Sir John Downie Parent- 
age of the Empress Eugenie The Scots in Portugal- 
Forbes of Skellater Other adventurous Scots in Portugal. 

WHEN the illustrious Robert Bruce lay dying at Card- 
ross, by his desire, after his demise, his heart was taken 
out, as all know, embalmed, and given to his firm friend 
and brother patriot, the noble Sir James Douglas, for 
conveyance to the Holy Land, whither the long war with 
England had prevented the king going in person. Douglas 
had that true heart, which had so often beat high in battle 
for Scotland, enclosed in a silver casket, which he 
constantly wore suspended from his neck by a chain of the 
same metal ; and having made his will, and settled all his 
affairs, he set sail from Scotland, attended by a splendid 
and gallant retinue of knights, among whom were Sir 
William Sinclair of Boslin, Lockhart of Lee, and others 
famed in Scottish war. This was in 1329. 

Anchoring off Sluys, the great emporium of Flanders, 
expecting to find companions bound on the same pilgrim- 
age, he kept open table on board his ship, with royal 
munificence, for twelve days. Froissart says he had with 
him eight Scottish knights, one of whom bore his banner ; 
twenty-six esquires, " all comely young men of good 
family ; and he kept court in a royal manner, with the 


sound of trumpets and cymbals. All the vessels for his 
table were of gold and silver." 

At Sluys he heard that Alphonso, the King of Leon and 
Castile, was at war with Osmyn, the Moorish King of 
Granada, and as this was reckoned a holy strife, he resolved 
to take Spain on his way to Jerusalem ; thus, ; fcer 
landing at Seville, he marched with the Spanish army to, 
the frontiers of Andalusia, and in the great battle fought 
at Teba the vanguard was assigned to him the Scottish 
hero and veteran of Bannockburn. 

Teba lies about forty miles north-west of Malaga, in 
the midst of the rocky Sierra Camorra, and has still its 
Moorish castle which was made defensible by the French 
in 1810. 

The Moorish cavalry were routed and took to flight, and 
Douglas with his comrades, pursuing them too eagerly, 
were separated from the Spanish army. The Moors, 
perceiving the small number that followed, rallied and 
surrounded the Scots. Douglas, with only ten survivors, 
cut his way through, and would have made good his 
retreat had he not turned to assist Sir William Sinclair, 
whom he saw surrounded and in dire peril. In attempt- 
ing to save his friend, he was cut off and overwhelmed. 
On finding himself inextricably involved, he took from his 
neck the casket containing the heart of his king, and 
threw it before him with the memorable words, " Now, 
pass onward as thou wert wont, and Douglas will follow 
thee or die !" 

He rushed to where it lay, and was there slain, with the 
Laird of Roslin, Sir Robert and Sir Walter Logan, two 

K 2 


brothers. Next day the body of the hero of seventy 
battles Fordoun says he was thirteen times defeated by, 
and fifty-seven times victorious over, the English (Book 
xm) was found with the casket and brought home by 
his few surviving friends. He was laid among his fore- 
fathers in Douglas Kirk, and the heart of Bruce in 
Melrose Abbey. 

At the court of Alphonso there was a knight of high 
renown whose face was seamed with scars, and who ex- 
pressed surprise that a soldier of such renown as Douglas 
liad none to show. " I thank God," said the latter, " that 
1 always had hands to protect my face." (Barbour.) His 
sword is still preserved, and is referred to by Scott in the 
notes to Marmion. On the blade is the date 1329 the 
year of Teba. 

When Seville was captured from the Moors by the 
Spaniards in 1247, after one of the most obstinate sieges 
mentioned in Spanish history, in which the wooden bridge 
of the Gruadalquiver perished, one of the bravest knights 
in the army of the King of Castile was a Scottish wanderer 
named Sir Lawrer.ce Poore (Powrie ?), called in the Spanish 
annals Lorenzo Poro, who, after the storming of the city, 
was the first man to ascend La Giralda, a tower still 250 
feet in height. His descendant, the Marquis de la Motilla, 
still owns his ancestral mansion in the Calle de la Cuna at 
Seville, says Forde in his work on Spain, and adds that "a 
Scottish herald will do well to look at the coats of arms in 
the Patio." 

In 1495-6 ambassadors were sent from James IV to 
Spain. In the High Treasurer's accounts for that year 


there is an entry to " George Murehead 4 ells of Rissili's 
brown, for a gowne to him, when he went to Spain with the 

Sir John Seton of Barnes, Knight of St. Jago, the direct 
descendant of George IY. Lord Seaton was Master of the 
Household to Philip II, 1556-98 ; but was home in Scot- 
land in 1609. (House of Seaton, etc.) 

In 1618, Archibald, Earl of Argyll, who commanded the 
royal forces at Glenlivat in 1594, " not being able to give 
satisfaction to his creditors," according to Scotstarvit, 
entered the service of Spain, had a command in West 
Flanders, and distinguished himself at the capture of 
several strong places from the States of Holland, but 
changed his religion. Thus Craig, a forgotten poet, wrote 
of him : 

" Now Earl of Guile and Lord Forlorn thou goes, 
Quitting thy prince to serve his foreign foes ; 
No faith in plaids, no trust in Highland trews, 
Camelion-like, they change so many hues.'' 

About two years after this, one of the Semples, of whom 
little more than the name is known, founded the Scottish 
College of Valladolid, the revenue of which is now about 
1,000 per annum, and the lands of which are to be held 
off the Spanish Crown while vines shall continue to grow 
upon them. Six miles from the city is the country villa 
(of the college) which Wellington occupied for a night on 
the retreat from Burgos. 

Ludovick, " the Loyal Eavl of Crawford," after the 
king's fortunes had reached the lowest ebb in 1646, finding 
himself penniless and destitute, returned to Spain, the 


theatre of his early fame, " to crave," says Guthry, " arrears 
dne to him" by Philip IV, who gave him command of an 
Irish regiment, in which a Don Diego Leslie had a company 
a follower of his own. He was at Badajoz in 1649. Two 
years after he was in Paris fighting valiantly in the wars of 
the Fronde, and guarding the Cardinal de Retz in Notre 
Dame, with fifty other Scottish officers qui avoient ete des 
troupes de Montrose, and in these wars he is supposed to 
have perished. {Memoirs of Montrose, 1858.) 

In 1706 a Scotch officer rendered such valuable services 
in succouring the city of Denia, in Valencia a place of 
difficult access, and strongly defended by walls and a double 
port that he won the gratitude of Charles III. This was 
Commodore James Moodie, of Melsetter, who ran from 
school in his boyhood, and entered on board a man-of-war. 
How well his services were appreciated by the Spanish 
king may appear from the following letter which tue 
latter addressed to Queen Anne on the subject in 
French : 

" Madame, my sister, 

" Captain James Moodie, who commands the vessel 
Lancaster, has rendered me services so important that I owe 
almost entirely to his zeal the preservation of my city of 
Denia, which, being destitute of all kinds of provision, 
would not have held out against a siege of five weeks, 
unless the said captain had furnished a supply at the request 
of those who commanded on my part. I doubt not but 
your Majesty will make him a handsome and generous 
return, both on account of the said services and of this my 


pressing intercession ; to which I shall only add the assurance 
of that respect and sincere attachment with which I am, 
madame, my sister, your affectionate brother, 


How the commodore was rewarded we know not ; but 
from the old Statistical Account we learn that when close 
on his eightieth year he was murdered in the streets of 
Kirkwall at the instigation of the Jacobite, Sir James 

During the war in Catalonia, John Wauchope of Niddrie- 
Marischal, a general of Spanish infantry, was slain in 
1718. His brother, in the same service, has already been 
referred to as the governor of Cagliari, in Sicily. The 
earl-marischal at this time, and till 1733, and several 
other Scottish officers, his companions in loyalty and 
misfortune, were serving in the Spanish army. Among 
them was Sir John Macdonald, who afterwards landed in 
Moidart with Prince Charles. 

The earl was offered the rank of lieutenant-general, but 
declined it, until his services should prove his capacity 
and merit an instance of modesty and disinterestedness 
that filled with astonishment the ambitious Alberoni. The 
earl then proceeded to Rome, where he received the Order 
of the Garter from King James ; and in 1733 he was again 
in the army of Spain when war broke out between that 
country and the emperor. Some years after he seems to 
have quitted the Spanish service again and lived for a time 
in obscurity, though in 1750 he was sent by Charles III 
of Spain to negotiate for the peace of Europe, but failed in 


the attempt. As stated elsewhere, he was governor of 

He was the last earl-marischal, and with him ended a 
family the most ancient in Europe, after serving Scotland 
in a distinguished capacity for above seven hundred years. 
Then the old prediction attributed to Thomas the Rhymer 
was said to be fulfilled : 

" Inverugie by the sea, 
Lordless shall thy lands be !" 

The prints of 1759 record that Don Pedro Stuart, 
lieutenant-general of the naval forces of Spain, left Madrid 
in November for Carthagena, whence he sailed with six- 
teen ships of the line to convey home his Sicilian Majesty. 
(Caledon Mercury) 

It was no doubt a son of this officer that we find so 
prominently referred to by Schomberg and Brenton in their 
naval histories. 

On the night of the 19fch December, 1796, Nelson, then 
a commodore, having been despatched by Sir John Jervis 
in Le Minerve, 38-gun frigate, accompanied by the Blanche, 
32 guns, to Porto Ferrajo, fell in with two Spanish frigates, 
and directed Captain Cockburn to attack the one that 
carried a large poop light. This was off Carthagena. 
The Blanche kept up a running fight with one of the 
frigates ; bat the Minerve, says Sir Jahlel Brenton, 
" proved more fortunate, and subdued her antagonist, 
which on being boarded proved to be the Santa Sabina, 
an 18-pound frigate of 40 guns, commanded by Don 
Jacobo Stuart. During the action the contending and 
chasing ships had run close into Carthagena, with the wind 


dead upon the land. The Spanish captain was therefore 
no sooner on board the Minerve than the Sabina was 
taken in tow. This was scarcely accomplished when the 
Minerve was brought to action by another Spanish frigate."' 

The hard and gallant fighting that followed fighting- 
for which Nelson presented a beautiful gold-hilted sword 
to Captain Cockburn lies apart from the story of Don, 
Jacobo Stuart, who, before he struck his colours, had lost 
his mizzen-mast, and had 164 killed and wounded out of a 
crew of 286 by his valour exciting the admiration of 
Nelson. Schomberg gives the date of this frigate-battle 
the 19th December, 1796 ; Brenton, the 1st of June in the 
same year. 

In the early part of the present century, Sir John Downie,. 
a Scotsman in the Spanish army, took a prominent part 
in several political events. He went to Spain in the first 
instance with Sir John Moore, and with the survivors of 
that officer's ill-fated expedition returned with Sir Arthur 
Wellesley. Having entered the Spanish service, he won 
such reputation in Estramadura that a legion of 7,000 men,, 
collected by his influence alone, served under him with 
great success during the rest of the Peninsular war. This, 
force was named the Estremena Legion, on the formation of 
which he expended 200,000 dollars. {London Courier.} 

In the attack on Seville, i 1812, he led the advanced 
column, which his legion formed, and for this King; 
Ferdinand VII promoted him to the rank of field-marshal, 
loaded him with honours, and made him knight of St. Fer- 
dinand, Carlos III, with seven crosses, for distinguished 
actions in the field. He was made governor of the palace: 


of Seville and captain- general of Andalusia. On visiting 
London tlie Prince Regent (afterwards George IV) knighted 
him for his Spanish services ; but his decided preference 
for Spain gave offence in some quarters, though he 
had many attached friends in the British army, among 
them notably the gallant Sir Thomas Picton, who fell at 

When the troubles of Ferdinand began, Sir John Downie 
and his nephew were arrested at Seville in 1823, on 
suspicion of being engaged in a plot to rescue the king 
and royal family, about the time that a French army 
crossed the Bidassoa and occupied Madrid, while the king 
and Cortes retired to Seville, and thence to Madrid. 

He was subjected to many grievous indignities, and 
imprisoned for a time in the Four Towers, at the arsenal 
of Curacca, on an island near Cadiz, with a sentinel placed 
over him. But these sufferings were temporary, and his 
honours were restored to him. 

Sir George Napier, in his History of the Peninsular War, 
gave great offence to the relatives of Sir John Downie by 
terming him " an adventurer," and drew forth a retort from 
one, who asserted that he " was lineally descended from Sir 
Duncan Forrester of Arngibbon, in Perthshire, an exten- 
sive landed proprietor, who in the year 1492 was Comp- 
troller of the Household to King James IV," and that 
he was also descended from the Maxwells of Brediland, in 

He was born on his father's property of Blairgorts, near 
Kippen, in Stirlingshire, and was a man of very command- 
ing presence. 


He died in Spain in 1826, and was interred with every 
honour that the King of Spain could bestow. 

In 1879 there died at Madrid Donna Maria Manula 
Kirkpatrick of Closeburn, the mother of the Empress 
Eugenie, and daughter of a Mr. Kirkpatrick, who was 
British consul at Malaga during her marriage with the 
Conde de Montijo, an officer of the Spanish army, connected 
with the Duke de Frias, representative of the ancient 
Admirals of Castile, of the Duke of Fyars, and others of 
the highest rank, including the descendants of the kings of 

Her great-grandfather (according to the Times) died on 
the scaffold in 1 746, in consequence of having joined the 
loyal Highlanders under Prince Charles Edward. His son 
emigrated and settled at Ostend, whence his family passed 
into Spain and settled in the south. The Countess- 
Dowager, who died in her 86th year at the Alba Palace, 
was married to a brother of the Count of Montijo and Teba 
(the same Teba where " the good Sir James Douglas" fell), 
and on the death of the latter without issue her husband 
succeeded to the title. The law of Spain makes it necessary 
to inquire into the descent of any lady before she can be 
espoused by a noble, thus certificates were obtained from 
Scotland proving that the Countess was a Kirkpatrick of 
Closeburn, and her ancestor had been created a baron by 
Alexander II. " From these parents the Empress Eugenie 
inherited the title of Teba. The Counts of Montijo and 
Teba were of the same origin as the Dukes of Medina- 
Sidonia, the family name of both being Guzman. . . . 
The counts appear among the most illustrious warriors of 


Spain in past generations, back as far as 1492, and during 
the wars of the first French Empire the owners of the title 
fought under the standard of Napoleon." 

The first Scotsman we can trace in the Portuguese ser- 
vice is Captain Forbes of Skellater, in Strathdon, who 
served at the siege of Maestricht, and in the Seven Years' 
War with the Prussian army, after which he entered that of 
Portugal, where he was the chief means of introducing the 
principles of that discipline which he had learned under 
Frederick the Great and Marshal Keith. 

He enjoyed the confidence of four successive sovereigns 
of Portugal, who nobly rewarded his integrity and virtue. 
He rose to the rank of general, and commanded the army 
at Boussillon, at the commencement of the Revolutionary 
war. He attained the highest rank and honours the King 
of Portugal could award him ; and when the royal family 
retired to Brazil he accompanied them, and died there, on 
the 8th of January, 1808, in his 67th year. 

The influence of Forbes in the Portuguese army drew 
other Scotsmen to its ranks. Among these were William 
Sharpe, a native of St. Andrew's, who in 1764 was made 
brigadier-general and governor of Olivenza, and died in 
London a baronet; in 1780 governor of the province of 
Minho, and colonel of the Mona regiment of infantry ; 
Colonel James Anderson, who in 1763 commanded the 
battalion of Lagos, and died at Viona in 1771 ; Major 
Bethune Lindsay, who died at Falmouthin February, 1776; 
and Colonel John McDonell, commander of the regiment of 
Peniche in 1765 a corps for steadiness surpassing even 
those of Prussia. " I am told," says a writer in the Edinburgh 


Advertiser, vol. iii, " that Colonel McDonell has been inde- 
fatigable, and that, with the assistance of three or four 
of his own relations who have seen service, he has in a 
few months brought that regiment to its present perfection, 
from being one of the worst in Portugal. The king publicly 
expressed his satisfaction, and thanked the colonel at the 
head of his regiment." 

There was also Lieutenant-General MacLean, who was 
appointed governor of Lisbon in 1768, and ten years after 
succeeded Don Jose Francis Lobo, Count of Oriolo, as 
governor of Estramadura, the first military honour in 
Portugal, and never before given to any but a noble of the 
highest rank. 

In 1764, Captain Forbes, the antagonist of the notorious 
John Wiikes, entered the Portuguese service, after having 
been in the French ; and there was also the gallant Briga- 
dier John Hamilton, who was drowned in 1767, when re- 
turning home in the Betsy, of Leith, which foundered off 
the coast of Lincolnshire. 


Intercourse between Scotland and the Low Countries " Auld 
Sanct Geil" at Bruges The Scots Brigade in 1570 
Brigadier Henderson Sir Andrew Gray " The Bulwark 
of the Republic." 

LIKE France and Sweden, Holland and the Low Countries 
were a spacious area for the development of Scottish 
valour and military enterprise, for thither in thousands 
flocked those whose swords peace with England left idle at 
home. As one song has it : 

" Oh, woe unto those cruel wars 

That ever they began, 
For they have swept my native shore 

Of many a pretty man : 
For first they took my brethren twain, 

Then wiled my love frae me. 
Oh, woe unto those cruel wars 

In Low Germanic !" 

Another girl sings thus of her love : 

" Repent it will I never 
Until the day I dee, 
Though the Lowlands o' Holland 
Hae twined my love and me." 

Between Scotland and the Low Countries intercourse 
took place at a very early period. 

James Bennett, Bishop of St. Andrew's, when a fugitive 
from the party of the usurper Baliol, took shelter there, 


and dying in 1332, was buried in the Abbey of St. Eckchot 
at Bruges. 

The market of trade for Scotland in the Low Countries 
was changed several times. It had been originally fixed 
at Campvere, in Zealand (on the north coast of Walcheren), 
the count of which had married a daughter of James I. 
"The Scots are allowed the use of the old parish church 
here," says a work of 1711; "it has frequently been in 
danger by the sea, which overturned a tower on the side 
of the harbour in 1650." From thence the staple was 
taken to Bruges, which in the 15th century was the centre of 
all European trade, and became eventually the seat of the 
Conservator of Scottish Privileges in Flanders. 

The Ledger of John Halli/burton, who held this office, 
and which runs from 1492 to 1503, is perhaps one of the 
most interesting commercial relics in Europe. John Home, 
the author of Douglas, was, we believe, the last who held 
this office. He died in 1808. 

When passing along the Quai Espanol at Bruges, in 
September, 1873 (to quote a previous work of our own), 
we met a vast crowd defiling across the old bridge that 
leads thereto from the Rue des Augustines, preceded by 
women strewing the way with flowers, for it was St. Giles' 
Day the 1st of the month the patron of the parish 
wherein lies the Scottish quarter of the old city. Preceded 
by the cure with censers and acolytes, and escorted by the 
2nd Belgian Infantry with fixed bayonets, and preceded by 
all the drummers of the Civic Gruard, came the curious 
relic of the saint on a pedestal borne by four men the 
left hand and arm of St. Giles cased in silver, and fixed 


upright from the shoulder. The right arm, we need 
scarcely inform Scottish readers of Knox's History, was 
the chief relic of the sister church in Edinburgh, where, 
till the Reformation, it was enshrined in silver, weighing 
over five pounds, and the right of bearing which, on the 
Saint's day, was hereditary in the family of Preston of 
Gourton. In the Bruges procession there is borne St. Giles 
in effigy, accompanied by his fawn, a supporter of the 
Edinburgh arms ; and, saluted by all guards and way- 
farers, the procession parades the city till evening, when it 
returns to the old church of St. Giles (near the great canal), 
before the altar of which lies William de Camera, sub -prior 
of St. Andrew's, in Fifeshire, who died at Bruges in 1417. 
There the Scottish factory was established in 1386, 
according to the old folio ChronyJce Van Vlanderen. It has 
lonf since been demolished, but near its site, in the 

O ' ' 

Ilistoire de Bruges, 1854, we find still extant the Schotte 
Poorte, Scliottiuen Straet, Schotte Bolle Straet, Schottile 
Straet, Zottine Straet, de VEglise St. Gilles, all of which 
were the abode or resort of Scottish traders and seamen 
in the middle ages. 

In 1408, Alexander, styling himself the Earl of Mar, 
though he had no right to that title save a charter from 
Isabel, his first wife, raised " a large company of gentle- 
men," sajs Douglas, and carrying them into Flanders, 
under John, Duke of Burgundy, performed great feats of 
chivalry at the siege of Liege, in that contest in which 
36,000 Liegeois are said to have been slain. He married 
Jane, Duchess of Brabant, whose subjects refused to 
submit to him as a foreigner, especially as she died within 


a year or so of this marriage. Enraged by this, he fitted 
out a fleet, swept that of the Brabanters from the sea, and 
steering elsewhere, according to Drummond, pillaged and 
destroyed Dantzig, after which he returned with a vast 
booty to Scotland. 

Among those who accompanied him was Sir William 
Hay of Nachton. (Notes to Border Minstrelsy.) 

From Bymer's Fcedera we learn that William, Lord 
Graham (ancestor of the Duke of Montrose), was at 
Bruges in December, 1466. While there he borrowed 80 
Scots from Sir Alexander Napier of that Ilk, who was then 
selecting a suit of fine armour for James II, and was 
present at the nuptials of Charles the Bold in 1468, when 
the brilliant tournament of the Golden Fleece was held. 
(Merchiston Papers.) 

We have now come to the year 1570 the epoch when 
the old Scots brigade of gallant and immortal memory, a 
corps that existed for 258 years until 1818, and took its rise 
at a time when the power of Maurice, Prince of Nassau, drew 
to his standard the best and bravest of those Scottish 
spirits whose swords failed to feed them at home a time 
when the Spanish armies with which they warred were 
the finest troops in the world, but when the musketeers, 
pikemen, and cuirassiers of the Marquis de Spinola, of 
Alexander, Prince of Parma and Placentia, Cordova, 
Mansfeldt, and John of Austria were all men of the 
highest soldierly qualities, with a love of military glory ; but, 
unhappily, added to these a bigotry in religion, a ferocity 
and cruelty previously almost unknown in war. 

It was chiefly by the aid of the Scottish troops that 



Maurice of JNassau was able to meet the tide of Spanish 
invasion. Among those who led these Scots in 1570 were 
Sir Walter Scott of Buccleugh, one of the bravest of 
Border chiefs, who had exasperated Queen Elizabeth by 
storming the casble of Carlisle to release Armstrong of 
Kinninmont, and his son Walter, afterwards created by 
James VI Earl of Buccleugh; Sir Henry Balfour of Burleigh, 
whose brother David, a captain in his regiment, perished at 
sea en route to Holland ; John Halkett of Pitfirran, knighted 
by James VI, and progenitor of all the Halketts in that 
country ; and Colonels Stewart, Hay, Douglas, Grahame, 
and Hamilton, whose names are given by Grose in his 
Military Antiquities. The first year of their service was 
distinguished by a brawl concerning their countryman, 
George, sixth Lord Seaton, who was accused of tempting 
them to revolt and join the Spaniards in the cause of his 
mistress, Mary Queen of Scots. 

The Dutch authorities threatened to put him to the 
rack; he was brought before it, when the Scottish officers, 
with their men, surrounded the house, and threatened, 
if he was not set at liberty, " to go off in a body to the 
Spanish general." (Crawford's Memoirs.') He was there- 
upon released, and the matter ended. 

The war in which these troops came to bear a part was 
caused by Philip II, the successor of Charles V, a bigoted 
Catholic, appointing his sister, the Duchess of Parma, 
Regent of the Netherlands, on which the discontent of the 
people reached an alarming height. The Prince of Orange, 
with Counts Egmont and Home, remonstrated against the 
establishment of the Inquisition and the new bishops, and 


nsisted upon the states-gene r 1 being assembled to con- 
sider the complaints of the people ; but ere long it was 
evident that the courts of Spain and France had no other 
object in view than the destruction of Protestantism. A 
general combination was now formed for the removal of 
grievances, and the sword was cnce more drawn on the 
great battlefield of Europe, " the Lowlands of Holland," 
and " no mean part of the merit of overthrowing the 
Spanish power in the Netherlands is justly attributable to 
the Scots brigade," many of whom had served in those 
civil wars at home which ended in the fall of the castle of 
Edinburgh after the siege in 1573. 

In the Church of St. Walburga at Bruges there was 
shown till 1780 the tomb of a Scottish warrior of those 
days. Beneath no less than sixteen shields, each of which 
was surmounted by a coronet, was carved the epitaph of 
" William Foret, a native of Scotland, Chevalier of the 
Order of St. Andrew in that kingdom, during his life 
captain of 150 lances in the service of their Highnesses, 
the States of Flanders in the quarter of Bruges, ' lequel 
il passa le 6 Juillet, 1600; et Dame Marguerite Despars, 
fille de noble homme Louis Despars,' his wife, who died 
20th December, 1597." (Sepulchral Memorials?) 

This name is little known in Scotland, but seems to have 
belonged to Fifeshire. 

In the first five years of the 17th century four recruits, 
who made some figure in Scottish history, joined the 
brigade. These were William Dalrymple, a poor student, 
the hero of Scott's Ayrshire Tragedy, in 1602 ; and in 
1605, Angus Macdonald of Isla, Maclean of Duart, and 



Tormod Macleod of Lewis, who had undergone a tedious 
captivity in Edinburgh Castle since 1589 to keep the Isles 

Dalrymple having had the misfortune to be unwittingly 
the bearer of that message by which the Laird of Auch- 
indrane lured to his doom Sir Thomas Kennedy of Culzean, 
near Maybole, was, by means of the former, enlisted in the 
regiment of Buccleugh, with which he served some years 
as a soldier ; but on returning home he became a source 
of dread to the savage baron, who had him murdered and 
buried in the sand near Chapel-Donan. The corpse, 
speedily unearthed by the tide, was carried out to sea by 
the waves, which afterwards cast it on the shore near the 
scene of the murder, which soon came to light, and the 
guilty were brought to an ignominious death. (Pitcairn's 

In the April of 1607 there is recorded the arrest of a 
ship conveying to Flanders several fresh companies for 
Buccleugh's regiment. It is mentioned in a letter among 
the Denmylne MSS. in the Advocate's Library, which 
records that the states of Flanders owed several great 
sums to " umquhile Capitayne Achisoun" for his service in 
their wars, and that his heirs had arrested this ship in the 
harbour of Leith ; and the king was requested to use his 
influence that the arrestment should be " lousit," which no 
doubt was the case. 

In 1609 a twelve years' truce was concluded between 
the states-general and the King of Spain, and the first 
article of the document bore that his Catholic Majesty 
treated with the lords states-general of the United Provinces 


*' in quality of, and as holding them to be, free countries, 
provinces, and states, over which he pretended nothing." 

In 1G21 the war was renewed by the Spanish army, 
under the Marquis of Spinola, who won in several en- 
counters, but was sharply repulsed by the brigade under 
Colonel Henderson when besieging Bergen- op-Zoom in 
1622. He attacked that great fortress, the barrier between 
Holland and Zealand, with fury and confidence, pouring 
about 200,000 shot into it ; but was compelled to raise the 
blockade after three months, with the loss of 12,000 men, 
on the approval of Prince Maurice of Nassau. In the 
course of this siege Colonel Henderson was killed ; and it 
is probably a son of his, James Henderson, of whom we 
read as proceeding, with the rank of admiral, with the 
Dutch expedition to take Angola from the Portuguese in 
1641, at the head of twenty ships, having on board 3,100 
soldiers and seamen an object in which be succeeded, 
capturing the place, and finding therein a vast amount of 
booty. (Ogilby's Africa, fol., 1670.) 

During the progress of the new war, in 1624, old Sir 
Andrew Gray, whom we left in London soliciting military 
employment, after the struggle in Bohemia arrived from 
Dover at the head of 11,000 English auxiliaries in Holland, 
where, according to Balfour's Annals, "the most part of them 
died miserably with cold and hunger." The scarcity of 
food brought on a pestilence, and in their small trans- 
ports the soldiers were literally " heaped one upon 
another." They perished in thousands, and their bodies 
lay unburied in piles upon the sandy shores of Zealand, 
where their limbs and bowels were torn and devoured 


"by dogs and swine, to the horror of beholders." (Acta 

After this we hear no more of old Sir Andrew Gray, 
unless he is the same who is mentioned by Sir Thomas 
Urquhart of Cromarty in his list of Scottish colonels serving 
Louis XIII of France. (Hepburn's Memoirs.) 

In 1629 the three battalions of the brigade, commanded 
respectively by Colonels Sir Henry Balfour, Bruce, and the 
Chieftain of Bucoleugh, accompanied the Prince of Orange 
in his successful attempt to reduce Hertogenbush (otherwise 
Bois-le-Duc), where the Spaniards had concentrated all 
their munitions of war ; and thus by one stroke gave a 
mortal blow to the Spanish power in the Low Countries. 
On this occasion so greatly did the Scots cover themselves 
with glory that the Prince of Orange styled them " The 
Bulwark of the Republic." (Grose.) 

Walter, first Earl of Buccleugh, whohad so long commanded 
the first regiment of the brigade, died on the llth June, 
1634, and his body was landed at Leith for conveyance to 
his own house of Branxholm, whence the funeral set out 
for Hawick. " A striking sight it must have been that long 
heraldic procession which went before the body of the 
deceased noble, along the banks of the Teviot on that bright 
June day. First went forty-six saulies in black gowns and 
hoods, with black staves in their hands, a trumpeter in the 
Buccleugh livery following and sounding his trumpet. 
Then came Robert Scott of Howshaw, fully armed, riding 
on a fair horse, and carrying on the point of a lance a 
banner of the defunct's colours, azure and or. Then a horse 
in black, led by a lackey in mourning, a horse with a crim- 


son foot-mantle, and the trumpets in mourning sounding 
sadly." Then came the gum pheon, lances, spurs, and 
gauntlets, the great pencil standard and coronet, all borne 
by gentlemen of the (-Ian Scott. " Last caine the corpse, 
carried under a fair pall of black velvet, decked with arms, 
tears, cypress of satin, and on the coffin the defunct's helmet, 
with a coronet overlaid with cypress to show that he had 
been a soldier. And so he was laid among his ancestors 
in Hawick Kirk." (Dom. Ann. Scot.) 

Colonel Sir William Brog was a man of some distinction 
among the Scottish troops in Holland. A rare print of him 
by Queboren was engraved in 1635. He died in the Low 
Country wars, and a dispute among his heirs was before 
the Lords of Session in 1639 according to Durie's Decisions, 

During the German campaign which succeeded, the 
vexed question of precedence between the Scottish and 
English auxiliaries of Holland, with priority of rank, 
appears to have been discussed for the first time, and it was 
decided that the order and ranking should be according to 
the antiquity of the respective regiments ; but this right 
was never contested in the matter of the Scots brigade 
until the year 1783. 

Under Cardinal Richelieu, France in 1635 joined the 
Protestant League ; but the outrageous cruelties of the 
French troops, particularly at the siege and sack of Tirle- 
rnont, in Brabant, so exasperated the Netherlander that 
they flew to arms on every hand, and compelled the in- 
vaders to retreat. 

George Douglas (a son of the Earl of Morton), who had 


borne the royal standard under Montrose at Alford, in 
1645, joined the brigade soon after, and died in high mili- 
tary rank (baronage) ; and the great marquis's friend and 
chaplain, afterwards Bishop of Edinburgh, was chaplain to 
one of the battalions in 1648. 

After the peace of Westphalia, which was signed at 
Munster in that year, the Thirty Years' War ended, and 
Holland was declared to be " a free state, independent alike 
of Spain and the Empire." 

The Dutch disbanded their forces, but " the Bulwark of 
the Republic," their Scottish troops, remained intact, and 
the civil wars at home sent so many trained recruits to 
their ranks that the brigade was eventually increased to 
six battalions. 


Battle of Mechlin Siege of Gertruydenberg Siege of Nieuport 

Siege of Ostende Battle of Battle of Steinkirk 

Battle of Oudenarde. 

THEIR first encounter with, the enemy was at Gembloux, in 
the province of Namur, where, on the 20th of January, 
1578, the Spanish troops obtained a complete victory over 
them and the Belgic insurgents a defeat avenged on the 
1st of August in the same year at the great battle of 
Mechlin, when, as Famiana Strado tells us in his Belgic 
Wars, the Scots threw off their half-armour, let slip their 
belted plaids, and fought naked " nudi pugnant Scotorum 
multi," his words are. This was probably owing to the 
heat of the weather; but, according to the Dutch historians, 
the hardest work and heaviest loss fell upon the Scots, ere 
the brigades of Don John of Austria were put to the route 
and driven across the Dyle. 

In the great church of the city there was then to be 
seen a monument with the date obliterated, and an inscrip- 
tion stating that there lay " Margaret, daughter of Henry 
Stuart, by H.R.H. the Duchess of Orleans, daughter to 
George Stuart, of the illustrious house of Stuart and 
Lennox in Scotland, by Dame Mary de Baqueville of 
Normandy." (Atlas Geo., 1711.) 


From the Privy Council Register we learn that in 1578 
Captain John Strachan was empowered to levy 200 addi- 
tional men for the service of the Low Countries, " friendis 
and confederatis of this Realme"; that " loose women" were 
not to be transported there, and that the " great reputation" 
won by Scotsmen there was duly recorded in 1581 ; that a 
dispute among the officers was remitted to themselves ; and 
another, in which Colonel Balfour was concerned, was 
remitted to the judges in Flanders. 

In the same year, William I, Prince of Orange, sent an 
ambassador to Scotland to compliment James VI upon the 
valour of the brigade, which now marched to assist in the 
ineffectual attempt to raise the siege of Antwerp, which 
had then been invested for more than a year by the Prince 
of Parma, while the Dutch merchants of Amsterdam 
basely used secret means to prevent assistance being given 
to their rival brethren. 

Here fire-ships were used, and a prodigious mine exploded, 
according to Strada and others, " the shock of which was 
so dreadful that it made the earth tremble for several miles, 
and threw the water of the river a great way beyond its 
banks." In the explosion 500 men perished, and the city 
surrendered in the following year ; but the brigade was 
more successful in the case of Bergen-op-Zoom, from 
which the Prince of Parma was compelled to beat a 

Meanwhile a body of Scots, under Colonel Seaton, and 
of English, under Colonel Norris, were disposed about 
Ghent, according to Cardinal Bentivoglio, who tells us that 
at the siege of Tournay, " some days after the assault 


Colonel Preston, a Scotsman, forcing his way through the 
German companies of the king's camp, got some horse into 
the city," and thus gave heart to the besieged, though he 
informed them that there was no hope of succour from 
France. (Ilistory of the Wars in Flanders, fol.) 

In the commission granted in 1584 to Captain William 
Stewart (afterwards Lord Pittenweem) as colonel of the 
Guards to James VI it is stated that the officers and 
soldiers of that corps had previously served in the Nether- 
lands, where they had been " permitted and licensiatt to 
assist the Prince of Orange and the States in their wieris" 
for twelve years ; but, in default of wages, had endured 
poverty and hunger, whereby many perished, leaving 
widows and orphans which affords a glimpse that the 
brigade had found but indifferent paymasters in the states- 
general of Holland at that crisis. (Acts ParL, Jac. VI, 

At Gertruydeuberg, on the Maes, after the storm and 
capture of the strongly fortified town, the brigade suffered 
so heavily in three months that it was ordered to remain 
in garrison till recruited from Scotland ; and on the return 
therefrom of the States ambassadors, who had gone to 
congratulate James VI on the birth of his son in 1594, 
they took back with them 1,500 recruits to bring up its 
strength. (Grose's Antiquities.) And five years after 
saw the brigade cover itself with glory at the siege of Bom- 
mel, a strongly walled town, which was twice attacked by 
the Imperialists in 1589 and 1599, but on both occasions 
they were repulsed with heavy losses. 

By the year 1600 the Low Countries were cleared of the 


invaders, and the operations of the war were almost con- 
fined to Flanders ; but in these brief accounts the names or 
numbers of the slain are not fully recorded. 

In that year, at the Downs of Nieuport, eight miles from 
Ostende, the brigade served at the attack of the town 
under Maurice, Prince of Nassau, when the Archduke 
Albert of Austria, who advanced to relieve it, was defeated 
with the loss of 7,000 slain. 

On this occasion the Scots brigade lost heavily. It 
formed part of a column detached to hold some bridges over 
which the enemy had to pass to reach the scene of opera- 
tions, and the sluices by which the country could be laid 
under water ; but its numbers proved too weak for the 
duty assigned them, and they were forced to retire, " the 
whole loss having fallen on the Scots, as well as on their 
chiefs and captains, as on the private soldiers, insomuch 
that 800 remained (dead) on the field, amongst whom were 
eleven captains, many lieutenants, and other officers." 

In the History of the Republiclc, 1705, it is stated that at 
the siege of Nieuport many discontents concerning the 
division of booty and prisoners took place among the 
Protestant troops, and that many of the captured " were 
barbarously killed in cold blood by the Scots." 

In 1601 the brigade served at the famous siege of 
<O.stende a task which lasted three years, and in which 
more than 100,000 men are said to have perished on both 

So slightly was itfortified atfirst,that the Princess Isabella 
averred she would not change her dress till the Dutch and 
their Scottish allies surrendered, and when it fell " it was 


reduced to a heap of rubbish. The Spaniards shot so many- 
bullets against the sandhill bulwark that it became as a 
wall of iron, and dashed all the fresh bullets to pieces when 
they hit it." 

The governor was changed every six months. The 
assaults and cannonading daily were frightful ; the forts 
called the Hedgehog and Gullet of Hell were carried by' 
storm by the Spaniards and Italians ; the Germans carried 
the Sandhill, though they saw the first stormers blown by 
scores into the air amid the smoke of the conflict that 
mingled with the fog from the canals. Ultimately the place 
surrendered on honourable terms, and 3,000 Dutch and 
Scots and a few English capable of bearing arms marched 
out, with four field-pieces in front, and took their way to 
Sluys, upon the Maes. 

One account gives the roll of slain on this occasion afc 
76,961 of the assailants, and 50,000 of the besieged; and 
by Prince Maurice of Nassau the gallant survivors of the 
latter were welcomed as conquerors, and every officer and 
man was rewarded. 

The first governor of Surinam, when the Dutch got pos- 
session of it in 1667, was an officer of the Scotch brigade, 
Robert Baird, of the Sauchtonhall family, whose brother 
Andrew, also in the Dutch service, fell in the East Indies. 
(The Surname of Baird.} 

In 1672, when Louis XIV poured his troops under 
Luxembourg, Conde, and Turenne into the Low Countries, 
the brigade consisted as yet of three regiments, commanded 
by the father of the first Lord Portmore (who had relin- 
quished the name of Robertson for that of Collier), Colonel 


Graham, and Colonel Hugh Mackay of Scoury, a member 
of the Reay family, and formerly an ensign in the 1st 
Royal Scots. In 1073 he married Clara, the daughter of 
the Chevalier Arnold de Bie, in whose house he had been 

Subsequently he was present at the battle of Seneff, 
when, in August, 1674, the army of the Prince of Orange 
was defeated by that of the Prince of Conde. In his bat- 
talion, Graham of Claverhouse (the future Viscount Dun- 
dee) Deceived a captaincy for saving the life of the Prince 
of Orangp, in whose Guards he was then a cornet. A 
vacancy taking place soon after in the command of a 
Scottish regiment, Claverhouse applied for it His request 
was refused, whereupon he quitted the Dutch service, 
saying, "The soldier who has not gratitude cannot be 
brave," and, returning to Scotland, he raised a regiment of 
horse to serve against the persecuted Covenanters. 

The ill-judged appointment of some Dutchmen to com- 
missions in the brigade caused much discontent therein 
against the Prince of Orange, the future William III, from 
whom the force was demanded by James VII, when the 
time of the Revolution of 1688 drew nigh. (Grose.') 

In February, 1688, the Scottish Privy Council, by request 
of James VII, forbade the officers of the brigade, " under 
the highest pains, to beat up for recruits." " This," says 
Lord Fountainhall, " was looked upon as the forerunner of 
a war ; but the pretence was that our king intended (to 
have) levies of his own." 

In the April following, 10,000 stand of arms, "with 
ammunition conform," were ordered from Holland by the 


three Estates, then levying men against King James. 
(Egllnton Memorials, vol. ii.) 

It had now been raised to six battalions, and when the 
luckless king appealed to their loyalty only 60 officers out 
of 290 responded, while " the rank and file, being chiefly 
recruited from those whom the disturbed condition of the 
country had driven from Scotland, remained with the Prince 
of Orange, and formed one of the most valuable portions of 
the force with which he invaded Britain." 

Three battalions came over with him under (steceral 
Hugh Mackay, but the operations in which they were 
engaged, at the siege of Edinburgh Castle, at Killiecrankie, 
and Aughrim (in Ireland), lie apart from our narrative. 
The death of the last survivor of that force, Colonel William 
Maxwell of Cardoness, " who came over with our glorious 
deliverer, King William," is recorded in the Edinburgh 
Chronicle for 1759, as having occurred in 1752, in his 95th 

In 1692 the three regiments of the brigade rejoined the 
others in Elanders, where the contest between Louis XIV 
and William of Orange was about to be renewed in the 
spring, when the former suddenly appeared before Namur 
with 45,000 men, while Marshal Luxembourg with 
another army covered the siege of that important place, 
which holds the confluence of the Sambre and the Maes. 
William was unable to prevent its fall, and then came the 
battle of Steinkirk, in which the brigade was severely 

It was now ordered that the grenadiers of each regiment 
should alone wear caps; that there were to be fourteen 


pikes in each company of sixty men ; that each captain 
was to carry a pike, each lieutenant a partisan, and each 
ensign a half-pike. 

At Steinkirk there were ten Scottish regiments in the 
field, led by Lieutenant- General Mackay, and fifteen 
English. Among the former was the brigade ; Mackay 
led the way, and his Scots were all victorious. They first 
encountered the Swiss infantry, and a deadly struggle 
ensued, for " in the hedge-fighting," says D'Auvergne in 
his Campaigns, 1692, " their fire was generally muzzle to 
muzzle, the hedges generally only separating the com- 

In this battle, which, through William's bad leading, 
was a series of blunders, there fell 5,000 of the allies, and 
of these 3,000 were Scots and English. Bishop Burnefc 
relates that General Mackay, being ordered to take ground 
which he deemed untenable, remonstrated, but the orders 
were enforced. " God's will be done !" exclaimed the 
veteran, and a minute after he fell from his horse dead. 

In 1854 there died at his chateau of Ophemert in 
Guelderland, Berthold, Baron Mackay, at the age of 81 
years, of whom we have the following notice: "The 
baron was the descendant of General Hugh Mackay of 
Scoury, who commanded the Williamites at Killiecrankie, 
and fell at the battle of Steinkirk. Lord Reay's second 
son, the Hon. tineas Mackay, was colonel of the Mackay 
(Scots) Dutch regiment, and his family have since resided 
at The Hague, where they had obtained considerable 
possessions and formed alliance with several noble families. 
Their representative, Baron Mackay, the subject of this 

' A minute after he fell from his horse " p. 160 


notice, married the Baroness Van Renesse Van Wilp, 
and died at a patriarchal age, after a life of great piety 
and usefulness. By his death the Baron ^neas Mackay, 
late chamberlain to the King of Holland, become next 
heir to the ancient Scottish peerage of Reay after the 
Hon. Eric Mackay, now master of Beay, who succeeded 
his brother Eric, late Lord Beay, who died unmarried at 
Goldings, in Hertfordshire, in July, 1847." 

At Neerwinden, in 1693, the brigade again suffered 
heavy loss, and William was compelled again to give way 
before the white-coated infantry of France with the loss of 
10,000 men. " During many months after," wrote the 
Earl of Perth to his sister (as quoted by Macaulay), " the 
ground was strewn with skulls and bones of horses and 
men, and with fragments of hats, shoes, saddles, and holsters. 
The next summer the soil, fertilised by 20,000 corpses, 
broke forth into millions of scarlet poppies." 

The treaty of Ryswick, concluded in 1697, was followed 
by five years of peace. 

The brigade shared in all the perils and honours of the 
subsequent war of the Spanish succession, under the com- 
mand of John, Duke of Argyle. At Bamilies, in 1706, saya 
the Atlas Geographicus, " the Dutch troops, but more par- 
ticularly the Scots in their service, distinguished themselves 
by their extraordinary gallantry." Among the few prisoners 
taken by the enemy was Ensign Gardiner, of one of the 
Scottish regiments, who afterwards fell a colonel at the 
battle of Preston-pans. 

At Oudenarde, in 1708, where the French were defeated 
by Marlborough, and where " charge succeeded charge," 



states the record of the Scots Royals, " until the shades of 
evening gathered over the conflict, and the combatants 
could only be discerned by the red flashes of musketry that 
blazed over the fields and marshy ground," the Scots 
brigade was among the steadiest troops in the field ; and 
at Malplacquet, in the same year, when Villars was totally 
defeated, and where the hapless descendant of James 111 
and VIII was serving as a simple volunteer, yet charged 
twelve times, says Smollett, at the head of the household 
troops, the brigade fought well and loyally. John, Marquis 
of Tullibardine, eldest son of the Duke of Athole, fell at 
the head of one of its regiments , and among others there 
also fell two sons of Alexander Swinton, Lord Mersington ; 
Charles, colonel of a battalion ; and James, one of his 
captains, who had married a lady in Holland. Both 
brothers died within the French lines or trenches. (Douglas 

In the arts of peace the Scots were not unknown in 
Holland. Among the many filling chairs in the continen- 
tal universities in the 17th century, now utterly unknown 
at home, few stood higher than David Stewart, professor 
of philosophy at Leyden, who is mentioned with honour in 
Soberiana (Paris, 1732), a work in which M. Sorbier records 
many of the pleasant Sunday evening conversazioni, wherein 
Stewart figured, at the house of M. and Madame Saumoise. 




The Scots Brigade and its Battles Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom^ 
Changes in the Brigade Discontent in the Brigade 
Brigade Disbanded. 

THE peace of Utrecht, which was concluded in 1713, 
continued until 1744, when the British ministry again 
plunged into a continental war, for which they were 
severely reprobated, and in the following year, by order of 
the states-general, eight new companies were added to 
each regiment of the brigade, and recruited for in Scot- 
land. Their first service was at the siege of Tournay, 
then deemed one of the strongest and finest citadels in 
Europe. The allied army, consisting of ] 26,000 men, took 
the field ; but Sluys and Hulst fell, and the Dutch, 
terrified by the progress of the French, clamoured against 
their rulers, and compelled them to declare the Prince of 
Orange Statholder. 

The brigade fought at Roucaux, at Val, and Laffelot. At 
the latter, an account of the battle printed at Liege states 
" that the French king's brigade carried the village of 
Lauberg, after a repulse of 40 battalions successively." A 
letter from an officer states " that this brigade consisted of 
Scots and Irish, who fought like devils ; that they neither 

M 2 


took nor gave quarter ; that observing the Duke of Cum- 
berland to be extremely active in the defence of that post, 
they were employed in the attack at their own request ; 
that they in a manner cut down all before them, with a full 
resolution to reach his Highness, which they certainly 
would have done had not Sir John Ligonier come up with 
a party of horse and saved the duke at the loss of his own 
liberty." (Scots Mag., 1747.) 

The " hero" of Culloden was routed, with the loss of 
many colours and sixteen guns. 

In July, 1747, Count Lowendahl commenced the siege of 
Bergen-op-Zoom, which cost him 20,000 of the finest 
French troops. On the 14th his batteries opened against 
the place, the garrison of which consisted of six battalions, 
including two of the Scots brigade, with whom. Colonel 
Lord John Murray, Captain Fraser of Colduthil, Campbell 
of Craignish, and several other officers of the 42nd 
obtained permission to serve, as their regiment was then 
in South Beveland. (Records of the Black Watch.} 

In the lines were 18 more battalions, with 250 pieces of 
cannon, and the assailants mustered 36,000 men, thereby 
exciting such terror that the governor and the whole of 
the troops, except the two Scots and one Dutch battalion, 
abandoned the town, to which, by oversight or treachery, 
Lowendahl gained access, after a two months' investment. 

The three regiments maintained a desperate contest with 
the enemy, single-handed, as it were, for several hours 
at this eventful crisis. From the 15th July till the 17th 
September the siege had been pushed without intermission, 
and the French losses were dreadful. During all that 


time 74 great guns and mortars had hurled their iron 
showers upon the works, in many instances red-hot, to fire 
the streets and churches ; but, on the 25th July, Loudon's 
Highlanders, who were posted at Fort Eours, covering the 
lines, made a sally, claymore in hand (says the Hague 
Gazette), destroyed the enemy's grand battery, and slew stf 
many that Count Lowendahl beat a parley for the burial of 
the dead. This was refused, so the latter had to lie where 
they fell. The town was now in ashes, the trenches full 
of carnage and pools of blood, and hour by hour the roar 
of cannon and the red explosion of bombs went on. 

The stand made by the two battalions of the Scots 
brigade enabled the governor and a few of the garrison to 
recover themselves after the surprise of the town, says 
General Stewart, otherwise the whole would have been 
killed or taken. "The Scots," according to the Hague 
Gazette, " assembled in the market-place, and attacked the 
French with such vigour that they drove them from street 
to street, till fresh reinforcements pouring in compelled 
them to retreat in turn, disputing every inch as they re- 
tired, and fighting till two-thirds of their number fell upon 
the spot, killed or severely wounded, when the remainder 
brought off the old governor and joined the troops in the 

This was through the Steenberg gate, and they marchoi! 
with colours flying and drums beating. Of Colliers' 
battalion, originally 660 strong, only 156 men remained 
alive; and of General Marjoribanks' battalion, originally 
850, only 220 survived the slaughter. 

The Hague Gazette says that " the two battalions of the 


Scots brigade have, as usual, done honour to their country, 
which is all we have to comfort us for the loss of such 
brave men, who from 1,450 are now reduced to 330, and 
those have valiantly brought their colours with them, 
which their grenadiers recovered twice, from the midst of 
the French, at the point of the bayonet. The Swiss have 
also suffered, while many others took a more speedy way to 
escape danger. 

The brigade had 37 officers killed and wounded. Coxe's 
History of the House of Austria has it that 330 Scots 
fought their way out. Two lieutenants, Francis and 
Allan Maclean, sons of the Laird of Torloisk, were taken 
prisoners, and brought before Count Lowendahl. 

" Gentlemen," said he, " consider yourselves upon 
parole. If all had conducted themselves as you and your 
brave corps have done, I should not now have been master 
of Bergen-op-Zoom." 

Allan Maclean afterwards left the brigade, and raised 
the 114th Highlanders for the British service in 1750, and 
the 84th Highlanders subsequently. At the head of the 
latter he served under Wolfe, and was the chief cause of 
our victory at Quebec. 

In Amsterdam there was collected 17,000 in one day 
for distribution among the survivors of the two battalions, 
and as during the siege every soldier who carried off a 
gabion from the enemy's works was paid a crown, some of 
the Scots gained ten per day in that desperate work, while 
those who drew the fuses from burning bombs received 
twelve ducats for each fuse. 

The Edinburgh Herald for 1800 records the death of 


John Nesbitt, at Oldhamstocks, in his 107th year, an old 
brigademan who had been wounded by a bayonet at the 
famous siege of Bergen-op-Zoom. 

So many captains and lieutenants had fallen there, that 
ensigns received companies , but purchase was unknown 
in the Scots brigade, which, after the peace of 1748, 
remained, as usual, on duty in the Dutch garrisons ; but 
changes took place. 

Thus, when in 1752 the states-general agreed to reduce 
their forces of the Scots brigade, four of the junior 
companies of each battalion were reduced, and incorpo- 
rated with the old ones to form Drumlanrig's regiment, 
the second battalion of which had been already reduced in 
1749. By the new regulations "there are reduced of the 
Scots 28 captains, 56 second lieutenants, and 70 ensigns ; 
the captains pensioned at 900 guilders a year, and obliged 
to serve ; the subalterns at 300, with leave to go where 
they will. But the gentlemen who have companies now 
are between 40 and 50 pounds sterling a year better than 
formerly." (Scots Mag.) 

The list of the principal field-officers of the six battalions 
is given thus, March 25, 1752 : 

1st Battalion 'Colonel, Lieutenant-Greneral Halkett ; 
2nd colonel, John Houston, died at Edinburgh, in 1788, as 

2nd Battalion colonel, John Gordon ; 2nd colonel, Earl 
of Drumlanrig, who shot himself in 1754. 

3rd Battalion colonel, Major-General Strewart ; 2nd, 
Colonel Graham. 

4th Battalion Colonel Mackay ; Lieut. -Colonel Forbes. 


5th Battalion colonel, Major-General A. Marjoribanks, 
died at The Hague in 1 774 ; 2nd colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel 

6th Battalion Colonel Mackay ; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Maclean, died at the Brill in 1752. 

Between the middle and end of the last century there 
died the following Scotsmen of rank in the service of the 
states-general, each and all after a long career of military 
experience : 

In 1758 Lieutenant-General Halkett, at The Hague. 

In 1767 Major Farquhar of Dalwhinnie, in his 87th 

In 1768 at Venloo, Lieutenant- General Sir George 
Colquhoun of Tillychewan ; at Montpellier, Colonel Fergus 
Hamilton; at Castleton, in Skye, Colonel Donald Mac- 
donald, in his 75th year; at Standhill, Colonel Robert 
Turnbull of Standhill. 

In 1 784 Colonel C. Craigie Halkett, Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Namur. 

In 1786 at Zutphen, in Gueldreland, Colonel Sir 
James Gordon of Embo, Bart. 

In 1789 Major-General Ralf Dun das, lately command- 
ing Gordon's regiment ; Major-General W. J. H. Hamilton 
of Silvertonhill, at Gorcum-on-the-Maes. 

In 1798 at Talisker, aged 80, Lieutenant-General John 

In 1804 Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, of the Hon. 
John Stuart's regiment. 

In 1755 the brigade was somewhat disappointed at not 
being recalled in a body to Britain ; but it had now been so 


long in the Dutch service that it had become a matter 
of dispute whether there existed a right to recall it. 

In 1 768, the field-officers of the brigade addressed a strong 
remonstrance to the British Secretary for War, expressing 
a desire for removal from Holland " on account of indiffer- 
ent usage," but their request was not successful ; and four 
years before this time we find that their officers, when 
beating up for recruits in Scotland, were obstructed by the 
Convention of Royal Burghs and the magistrates of Edin- 
burgh, on the plea that men were required for labour at 
home. (Edinburgh Advertiser, No. 32.) 

In 1797 there died in his 52nd year a distinguished 
officer of the brigade, Captain J. Gr Stedman, who com- 
menced his career in the British navy, but joined a regi- 
ment of the former as lieutenant, when he served with the 
force sent to suppress the insurgent negroes in Surinam. 
Inspired by a desire for exploring a part of the world then 
little known, and in the hope of preferment by the states- 
general, he volunteered for service with a regiment of 
seven companies formed as marines, and was appointed 
captain therein by the Prince of Orange under Colonel 
Tourgeoud, a Swiss. He landed at Surinam in 1773, and 
there formed an attachment to a handsome mulatto girl 
in her 15th year (daughter of a Dutch planter), " whose 
goodness of heart and faithful attachment to him were 
more endearing than all her personal attractions ; but by 
the laws of the settlement she could not be redeemed from 
slavery or brought home to Europe, but died of poison, a 
victim to jealousy, before the captain left her." (Ann. Reg , 


After undergoing incredible toils, witnessing horrible 
cruelties, and having many strange adventures, he returned 
to Scotland, and, shortly before his death, published a 
narrative of the five years' expedition against the revolted 
negroes of Surinam, 1772-1777, in two volumes quarto, 
with eighty drawings by himself, published at London in 
1796. He left a widow and five children, some of whose 
descendants are now in Scotland. 

The king in 1776 requested the states to give him 
their six Scottish battalions for service against his 
rebels in America ; but the Dutch objected, on the plea that 
tliey would have to raise six others in their place ; and a 
confused series of negotiations went on till 1782, without 
avail. In 1776 the Society of Amsterdam for the Recovery 
of tlie Drowned bestowed their gold medal upon Dr. John 
Stoner, of the Hon. General Stewart's regiment, for the 
recovery of one who was to all appearance dead. (Edin. 
Weekly Mag.} 

In 1779 the brigade again offered its services to the 
British government, being unwilling to linger in garrison 
towns when Britain's foes were in the field ; but the states 
general were resolved that on and after the 1st of January, 
1783, it should be incorporated with the Dutch army. By 
that time the brigade had been 213 years in this service, 
and in all the battles and sieges in which its soldiers fought 
had never lost a colour. 

On the 8th December, 1782, the Prince of Orange issued 
an order to the colonels of the brigade, directing them to 
assume blue uniform instead of the scarlet they had hitherto 
worn, to provide themselves with orange sashes, new 


gorgets and espontoons, and their sergeants with new 
halberts, with the British arms engraved thereon ; and 
lastly a most vexed point new colours, " painted with 
the arms of the generality, or of the province upon the 
establishment of which the battalion is paid ; as on the 1st 
January next the said regiment must begin to be com- 
manded in Dutch, from which day, likewise, the said regi- 
ment is to beat the Dutch and not the Scottish march." 

The indignation of the brigade at these changes soon 
took a practical turn. On General Welderen assembling 
the officers of Houston's and Stuart's battalions at The 
Hague, and delivering to them these orders, they declared 
themselves to be British subjects, and refused to obey 
them. So time was given for deliberation, and by a letter 
from Lord Grantham, addressed to Colonel Terrier, it was 
stated that those who chose to return to Britian would be 
welcomed by the king, while those who chose to stay in 
Holland would not forfeit his regard. On this 50 officers 
retired from the Dutch service, and came to London in 
search of military service, and were presented to the king ; 
while it was arranged that the colonels commandant of the 
three regiments of two battalions each, Generals Houston, 
Stewart, and Dundas, should receive pay for life, without 
subscribing the Dutch oath of allegiance. (Edinburgh 
Advert., vol. xxxi.) 

The next demand of the regiment was the restitution of 
their Scottish colours and to have them sent to the king ; 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Cunningham was at The Hague in 
April, 1783, to receive them for that purpose. A long and 
somewhat angry correspondence ensued, and in 1784 the 
states ordered the said colours to be deposited in the 


arsenal at The Hague, adding that if the colours were 
transmitted to Britain they declined to employ Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cunningham. (Pol. Mag., vol. vi.) 

In 1793 the brigade came back to Britain in a body and 
was placed on the British establishment, and from that 
year till 1809 wore the kilt. On the 9th October, 1794, 
they were numbered as " the 94th regiment, or Scots 
Brigade," under General Francis Dundas, and in the fol- 
lowing June a new set of British colours was presented to 
the corps in George Square, Edinburgh, by Lord Adam 
Gordon, commanding the forces in Scotland. By this time 
several Dutchmen were in the ranks ; in one company 
alone there were 23 rank and file, all foreign. The three 
colonels commanding were Francis Dundas, Frederick 
Halkefct, and Islay Ferrier. 

As the 94th they maintained their ancient reputation at 
the Cape, in India, and the Peninsula, but were unfor- 
tunately disbanded in 1818. Reimbodied at Glasgow in 
1823, on which occasion their old colours were unfurled 
and borne by one of the Black Watch, a vain attempt was 
made to identify the new corps with the old ; but even the 
new one has passed away ; as, under the recent and help- 
lessly defective scheme of army reorganisation, it is 
u muddled" up, under a new name, with the old 88th or 
Connaught Rangers ! 

Through the kindly influence of Lord Reay, a stand of 
colours belong to the old brigade (not taken in 1782) was 
lately given to the magistrates of Edinburgh for preserva- 
tion in the parish church of St. Giles. But such is the 
story of that splendid old corps, which existed for 248 
years " The Bulwark of the Republic." 


Scoto- Swedish Nobles The Scots in Stralsund Gustavus 
Adolphus Caithness Men in the Swedish Service Colonel 
George Sinclair A Danish Ballad The Polish Wars 
The Siege of Stralsund The Wreck at Rugen Defence 
of Colberg More Scotch Volunteers arrive. 

AT the funeral of Carl Gustaf the Scoto- Swedish nobles 
appeared in strength. Baron Forbess led the Princess 
Euphrosyne, and in the procession were Colonel Leighton, 
John Clerk, Jacob Spens, Adolf Stewart, who bore the 
banner of Ravenstein, Forbess that of Holland, Douall 
that of Gothland ; and forty Swedish cavaliers of the second 
class were there, among whom were the names of Barclay, 
Klerk, Spens, Hamilton, etc. The families of thirteen 
Scottish nobles, some of whose titles yet exist, are given at 
length by Marry at. 

Among the untitled Scottish noblemen was Thomas 
Gladstone of Dumfries, colonel in Sweden in 1647 ; and 
all are frequently styled mysteriously of Tatilk i.e., " of 
that ilk." 

The first of the Swedish Spens family was James, who 
raised in 1611 a Scottish regiment for service in Sweden, 
to the indignation of the Danes, who sent 200 horse to 
slay him and his attendants in Zealand. 

At Skug Kloster, the chateau df General Wrangel, and 


now the residence of Count Brahe, the lineal descendant of 
the great astronomer, there are preserved portraits of many 
of Wrangel's comrades in the Thirty Years' War, inscribed 
with their names. Among these are Captain Kammel 
(Campbell), David Drummond, King (Lord Eythen), Pat- 
rick, Earl of Forth, Major Sinclair, who died serving 
Charles XII. " The best families in the kingdom are of 
Scottish descent," s'ays Bremner (Denmark and Sweden 
1840) ; " Leslies, Montgomeries, Gordons, Duffs, Hamil- 
tons, Douglases (lately extinct), Murrays in short, all the 
best names of Scotland are to be found in Sweden, having 
been introduced by the cadets of our noble families who 
served under Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' 

In 1850 there were Count Hamilton of Christianstadt 
and Baron Hamilton of Boo ; and John Hugh, Baron 
Hamilton, was Adjutant-General of Sweden in 1803, and 
premier ecuyer to the Duchess of Sudermaine. 

The most famous cannon-founder in Sweden was Sir 
Alexander Hamilton of the Redhouse, in Haddingtonshire. 
In the time of Gustavus his gun-forges were at Orebro. His 
invention, the canon a la Suedois, was used in the French 
army till 1780. He became famous in the wars of the 
Covenant, and in his old age perished when the castle of 
Dunglass was blown up by the treachery of an Englishman. 
According to Sir Thomas Urquhart, there was in the time of 
Gustavus upwards of sixty Scottish governors of castles and 
towns in the conquered provinces of Germany ; and he had 
at one time no less than four field-marshals, four generals, 
three brigadiers, 27 colonels, 51 lieutenant-colonels, 14 


majors, and an unknown number of captains and subalterns, 
all Scotsmen, " besides seven regiments of Scots that lay in 
Sweden and Livonia, and six elsewhere. The Dutch in 
Gustavus's service were many times glad to beat the old 
Scotch march when they designed to frighten or alarm the 
Dutch; and it is observed that Sir John Hamilton abandoned 
the army though earnestly pressed by Gustavus to stay, 
only because the Swedes and Dutch were ordered to storm 
the enemy's works before him at Wurtsburg, after he and 
his men had boldly hewn out a way for them." (At. Geo., 

Robert Munro of Foulis commanded two regiments, one 
of horse, the other of foot ; and of his surname there were 
three generals, 24 field officers, 11 captains, and many 
subalterns in Sweden. (Old Stat. Acct.) 

It has been written that " the reproach of a mere mer- 
cenary spirit would be unjust to the memory of these brave 
men, whom a peace with England compelled to draw their 
swords in other lands ; and it must be remembered that 
military service, no matter under whom or where, was a 
necessary part of a Scottish gentleman's education. The 
recruiting in all parts of Scotland continued during most 
of the Thirty Years' War with the greatest spirit, for the 
love of military enterprise and hatred of the Imperial cause 
were strong in the hearts of the nation ; and thus, until the 
era of the Covenant, the drums of the Scoto-Swedes rang in 
every glen from Caithness to the Cheviots." 

We have now to describe one of the greatest calamities 
of the time the massacre to a man of an entire Scottish 
regiment among the Norwegian Alps, 


In the year 1612 Gustavus Adolphus procured several 
companies of infantry from Scotland, and formed them 
into two regiments. According to Puffendorf, he had also 
sixteen Scottish ships of war, by which he captured the 
town of Drontheim (or Trondeim), in Norway, and cleared 
the southern shores of Sweden. His Scottish troops 
served him faithfully in his Russian war, particularly at 
the storming of Pleskov and Kexliolm, at the mouth of 
Lake Ladoga; and in 1620 he had still a stronger body 
of these auxiliaries, led by Colonel Seaton and Sir Patrick 
Ruthven, afterwards field-marshal and Earl of Forth, who 
won high honours at the capture of the Livonian capital 
and the storming of Dunamond and Mitau, in Courland. 

In the March of 3612, by permission of James VI, 
Colonel George Sinclair raised in his native county a body 
of 900 men for the Swedish service. A soldier of fortune, 
he had been early in the army of " The Bulwark of the 
North," and was a natural son of David Sinclair of 
Stirkoke, and nephew of the Earl of Caithness. 

The antecedents of the colonel were somewhat remark- 
able. According to Calder's History of Caithness, before 
embarking for Norway he was engaged in a somewhat 
desperate affair, the circumstances of which are briefly 
these: John, eighth Lord Maxwell of Nithsdale, having, 
it is said, treacherously slain Sir James Johnston of that 
ilk, fled to France and then to Caithness, where he lurked 
for some time; but a price being set upon his head, he 
attempted flight again, but was captured near the southern 
boundaries of the county by Colonel Sinclair, and sent to 
Edinburgh, where he was beheaded at the Market Cross on 


the 21st of May, 1613. His "Good Night," a pathetic 
ballad in which he takes leave of his lady, Margaret Hamil- 
ton, and his friends, is printed in the Border Minstrelsy ; 
and when the hand of fate overtook Sinclair, it was 
deemed but a just retribution by the whole Johnston clan. 

He embarked with his regiment to join Gustavus by the 
way of Norway, and after a four days' voyage landed on 
the coast near Romsdal. The object of the expedition 
was to assist Gustavus in the conquest of Norway, and 
for this purpose Colonel Monkhoven, with another body of 
2,300 Scots, had not long before landed at Drontheim, 
and cut a passage into Sweden. (Geyers' Histoire de 

Sinclair's second in command was Alexander Ramsay, 
who had under him two other officers Jacob Manner- 
spange and Henrick Brussey, supposed to mean Henry 
Bruce, according to the Norwegian accounts -and he was 
accompanied by Fru (or Lady Sinclair) ; and they note an 
insolent speech alleged to have been made by Sinclair 0:1 
his landing " I will recast the old Norway lion, and turn 
him into a mole that dare not venture out of his burrow !" 

He pursued his march along the valley of Lessoo, under 
the shadow of the tremendous Dovrefelt, 8,000 feet high, 
and is said to have given the country to fire and sword, 
thereby infuriating the Norse, who sent abroad the Budstick 
(or message-rod) a signal like the Scottish fiery cross 
summoning all to arms ; and a great body of boors, armed 
with matchlocks and axes, under Burdon Segelstadt of 
Ringebo, near Elstad, took possession of the narrow moun- 
tain gorge through which the Scots had to pass at 



Kringellen. The road was only a mere footpath, exceed- 
ingly narrow, and overhanging a deep and rapid stream 
that flowed beneath. According to Norwegian tradition, 
a mermaid appeared to Colonel Sinclair by night and 
warned him of death if he advanced ; but he replied that 
" when he returned in triumph from the conquest of the 
kingdom, lie would punish her as she deserved." Accor ing 
to Calder's History, the mermaid is supposed to have been 
the Fru herself in disguise. 

Be that as it may, the Sinclairs marched on, and the air 
which their pipes played is still remembered in Norway 
(Calder, p. 276), and it was certainly their own dead march. 
Night was closing, and the deep Norwegian fiords and the 
pine forests that overhung them were growing dark, when 
the regiment entered on the narrow path described. The 
siillness and loneliness, together with the difficult nature of 
the place, caused the Sinclairs to straggle in their march, 
and they had just attained the middle of the black defile 
when the roar of more than a thousand long matchlocks re- 
verberated among the impending cliffs, filling all the chasm 
with fire and smoke. 

Then came the crash of half-hewn trees and loosened 
masses of rock, urged over by levers, that swept away 
whole sections and hurled them into the mountain torrent 
that foamed below. Among the first who fell was Colonel 
Sinclair, when gallantly essaying to storm the rocks, clay- 
more in hand. Among those hurled into the stream, say 
the Norwegians, was the Fru, "but, being supported by her 
ample robes, she was able to carry her infant son safe 
across in her arms." 


In the pass all perished save sixty and the adjutant. 
These were at first distributed among the inhabitants , but 
the latter grew tired of supporting them, and, marching 
them into a meadow, murdered them in cold blood, all save 
two, who escaped and got home to Caithness. Accounts 
differ, and Laing in his Norway is at variance with the 
native narrative in some points. Colonel Sinclair was 
buried in the church of Quam, near the valley of Vug, 
but his regiment all lie in a remote solitude near the fatal 
pass. Above the remains is a cross with a tablet inscribed 
thus : 

" Here lies Colonel Jorgen Zinclair, 900 Scots dashed to 
pieces like earthen pots by the boors of Lessoo, Vauge, 
and Foroen, under Berdon Segelstadt of Ringebo." (Von 

Here we are strongly tempted to give Ochlenschalager's 
ballad, which is not much known in this country : 

" Child Sinclair sailed from Scottish land 

Far Noroway to brave ; 
But he sleeps in Gulbrand's rocky strand, 

Low in a bloody grave. 
Child Sinclair sailed the stormy sea, 

To fight for Swedish gold ; 
' God speed thy warrior hearts and thee, 

And quell the Norseman bold !' 

" He sailed a day, and two, and three, 

He and his gallant band ; 
The fourth sun saw him quit the sea 

And touch Old Norway's strand. 
On Romsdal's shore his soul was fain 

To triumph or to fall ; 
He and his twice seven hundred men, 

The gallant and the tall. 



" O stern and haughty was their wrath, 

And cruel with sword and spear ; 
Nor hoary age could check their ^ rath, 

Nor widowed mother's tear. 
With bitter death, young babes they slew, 

Though to the breast they clung ; 
And wof ul tidings, sad, but true, 

Echoed from every tongue. 

" On hill and rock the beacons glared, 

To tell of danger nigh ; 
The Norseman's sword was boldly bared 

The Scots must yield or die ! 
The warriors of the land are far, 

They and their kingly lord ; 
Yet shame on him who shuns the war, 

Or fears the foreign horde ! 

" They march they meet the Norwayan host, 

Have hearts both stern and free ; 
They gather on Bredalbigh's coast 

The Scots must yield or flee. 
The Lange flows in Leydeland, 

"Where Kringen's shadows fall ; 
Thither they march, that fated band, 

A tomb to find for all. 

" In the onslaught first, Child Sinclair died, 

And ceased his haughty breath, 
Stern sport for Scottish hearts to bide, 

God shield them from the death ! 
Come forth, come forth, ye Norsemen trua, 

Light be your hearts to-day ! 
Fain would the Scots the ocean blue 

Between the slaughter lay ! 

" Their ranks yield to the leaden storm, 

On high the ravens sail 
Ah me ! for every mangled form 

A Scottish maid shall wail ! 
They come a host with life and breath, 

But none returned to say, 
How fares the invader in the strife 

He wars with Old Norway ? 


" There is a mound by Lange's tide, 

The Norseman lingers near, 
His eye is bright but not with pride 
It glistens with a tear I " 

Robert Chambers, who in his tour through Norway 
visited the scene of this slaughter, says : " In a peasant's 
house here were shown to me, in 1849, a few relics of the 
poor Caithness men a matchlock or two, a broadsword, a 
( ouple of powder-flasks, and the wooden part of a drum." 

In 1869, I was shown, by an officer of the Norwegian 
artillery, several others in the arsenal at Aggerhous ; but the 
long matchlocks had been refitted with locks for the flint. 

Among others who now joined the army of Gustavus 
Adolphus was Captain Sir James Hepburn of Athelstein- 
ford, who brought with him the survivors of old Sir 
Andrew Gray's Scottish band that went to Bohemia in 
1620; and he was accompanied by his cousin, James Hep- 
barn of Waughton, who soon attained the rank of lieu- 

The Swedish artillery at this time consisted of 4, 6, and 
12 pounders. The musketeers wore morions, gorgets, buff 
coats, and breastplates, swords and daggers ; the pikemen 
were similarly armed and accoutred. Ammunition was for 
the first time made up into cartridges, regiments were 
formed into right and left wings, with pikes in the centre 
to guard the colours. Gustavus formed his ranks six deep, 
Wallenstein thirty. Each battalion had four surgeons and 
two chaplains. For a time the private chaplain of Gus- 
tavus was the then well-known Bishop Murdock Mackenzie. 
The hair was shorn short, but mustachios, like swords and 
spurs, were of great length. All officers of rank wore a 


gold chain, and rich armour from Parma and Milan was 
quite the rage. A day's march was eighteen miles. " In 
a journal of each day's marching which a Scottish regiment 
made for six years successively, I find," says Harte, "that 
quantity to establish the medium." {Life of Gustavus.) 
Each Swedish and Scottish regiment consisted at this time 
of eight companies ; in each company were 72 musketeers 
and 54 pikemen. 

In 1625 Gustavus appointed Sir James Hepburn colonel 
of his old Bohemian comrades, now represented by the 1st 
Scots Royals, of which his name as 1st colonel, under date 
in France, 1633, can yet be seen in any Annual Army List. 
" He was a complete soldier indeed," says Defoe, " and 
was so well-beloved by the gallant king that he hardly 
knew how to go about any great action without him." 

When Gustavus renewed hostilities with Sigismund of 
Poland, in 1625, Hepburn's Scottish regiment formed part 
of the allied force which invaded Polish Prussia, captured 
many strong places, and ended by the total rout of the 
Poles on the plains of Semigallia in Courland. 

Gustavus, resolving to effect the relief of Memel, in 
Prussia, when his garrison was closely blockaded by 30,000 
Poles, entrusted the duty to Hepburn and Count Thurm. 
The former had only three Scottish regiments of infantry, 
and the latter but 500 horse for this desperate task, which, 
after a long march, they began in the night, " at push of 
pike." A terrible discharge of bullets, arrows, and stones 
was opened on the Scots by dense hordes of Cossacks and 
Heyducks, clad in mail shirts, and Hepburn was compelled 
to take post on a rock, around which the wild horsemen 


surged and shouted, " The Scottish curs cannot abide the 
bite of the Polish wolves !" 

On that rock Hepburn defended himself for two entire 
days against the whole Polish army led by Prince Udislaus, 
till Gustavus in person achieved the relief of the town, on 
which the Poles gave way unpursued. It was computed 
that each of Hepburn's Scots killed a man, yet lost only a 
seventh of their own number. 

In the following year the Scots fought gallantly at 
Dantzig under General Sir Alexander Leslie of Balgouie 
(the future Earl of Leven), a veteran of the Dutch and 
Bohemian wars. His pikemen broke through the dense 
masses of Sigismund's cavalry twice, cut to pieces 400, 
capturing four troop standards, and retired with little loss ; 
but this movement brought on a battle which ended in the 
total rout of the Polish army, with the loss of 3,000 men . 
(Puffindorf's Sweden.) 

In 1627 Hepburn's Scots accompanied Gustavus again 
into Prussia, and were at the storming of Kesmark on the 
Vistula and the defeat of the Poles at Dirschau. In the 
following year Sweden obtained fresh levies from Scotland. 
Among these was a strong regiment led by Alexander 
Lord Spynie. These, with a few English, made 9,000 men. 
Spynie's regiment was added to the garrison of Stralsund, 
then blockaded by the Imperialists, who aimed at nothing 
but the total subversion of German liberty and extirpation 
of the Lutheran heresy by fire and sword a scheme in- 
cluding the conquest of all Scandinavia, which attracted 
the attention of all Europe. Thus Stralsund, which had 
taken no part in the war, was exposed to a vigorous siege, 


and the two Northern kings resolved to forget their 
jealousies and relieve it. Led by the Laird of Balgonie, 
5,000 Scots and Swedes cut a passage into the town and 
supplied the starving people with food. A gallant defence 
now began, though Wallenstein vowed he would possess 
Stralsund " even if God slung it in chains between heaven 
and earth !" 

Nowhere did the Scots do their duty more nobly than 
there, and medals were struck in their honour, while Hep- 
burn was knighted. " Here," says Munro, " was killed the 
valorous Captain Macdouald, who with his own hands 
killed with his sword five of his enemies before he was 
killed himself. Divers also were hurt, as was Captain 
Lindesay of Bainshaw, who received three dangerous 
wounds ; Lieutenant Pringle and divers more, their powder 
being spent ; to make good their retreat falls up Captain 
Mackenzie with the old Scottish blades of our regiment, 
keeping their faces to the enemy while their comrades were 
retiring; the service went on afresh, when Lieutenant 
Seaton and his company alone, led by Lieutenant Lumsden, 
lost about 30 valorous soldiers, and the lieutenant, seeing 
Colonel Holke retiring, desired him to stay a little and see 
if the Scots could stand and fight or not. The colonel, 
perceiving him to jeer, shook his head and went away. In 
the end Captain Mackenzie retired slowly with his company 
till he was safe within the walls ; and then he made ready 
for his march towards Wolgast, to find his Majestic of 
Denmark." (Munro's Expedition, 1637.) 

In the end Wallenstein was forced to raise the siege and 
begin a shameful retreat. 

THE SCOTS IN SWEDE'S. (Continued.) 

The Wreck at Eugen Defence of Colberg More Scottish 
Volunteers arrive The Massacre of Brandenburg The 
Vengeance of Frankfort-on-the-Oder The Elbe crossed. 

AT this date (1630) Gustavus had now in his army more 
than 1,000 officers and 12,000 men, all Scots. "Amongst 
these forces," says Richard Cannon and many of them, 
nnder Leslie, were sent to drive the Imperialists out of 
the Isle of Rugen " Colonel Hepburn's Scots regiment 
appears to have held a distinguished character for gallantry 
on all occasions : and no troops appear to have been 
found better for this important enterprise than the Scots, 
who proved brave, hardy, patient of fatigue and privation, 
frugal, obedient, and sober soldiers." (1st Royals War 
Off. Records.) 

Rugen was captured at a stroke, after which the regi- 
ment was quartered " in Spruce." 

Sir Donald Mackay, of Strathnaver's regiment, 1,500 
strong, raised for the Danish army in the country of Lord 
Reay in 1626, now volunteered for service in Sweden, and 
was ordered by Oxenstiern to embark at Pillau, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Monro, and proceed towards Wolgast, 
in Pomerania. 

Monro (a cousin of Foulis) embarked his men on board 


of two Swedish, vessels the Lilynichol and Hound. On 
the former were the companies of Robert and Hector Monro 
and Bullion ; on board the latter, those of Major Sennot, 
Captains Learmonth and John Monro ; while their luggage, 
horses, and drums were on board a third and smaller 
craft. When night came on there blew a tempest, and the 
expedition found itself among shoal water, with the rocks 
and reefs* of Pomerania to leeward ; and Monro's ship was 
all but water-logged, though relays of 48 Highlanders 
were constantly at the pumps. This was on the 19th of 

A little before midnight the L'lynichol foundered on the 
Isle of Rugen, parting in two ; but after incredible exertions 
the soldiers got ashore, the colonel being the last to abandon 
the wreck, from which he brought off all the arms and 
armour. He found himself on the picturesque Isle of 
Rugen the last stronghold of paganism in the North, 
and where to this day may be seen the sacred wood and 
lake mentioned by Tacitus in his treatise on Germany, and 
where human sacrifices were offered up to a gigantic mon- 
ster-god named Swantovit. He was 80 miles from the 
Swedish outposts. All the forts were again in the posses- 
sion of the Imperialists ; he was without ammunition, and, 
as he tells us, " had nothing to defend us but swords, pikes, 
and wet muskets." In addition to this his soldiers were 
soaked, exhausted, and starving. 

On his application, the seneschal of Rugenvalde, a 
castle belonging to the Duke of Pomerania, sent him fifty 
dry matchlocks and ammunition. With men armed with 
these, and his pikemen, Moaro fell briskly upon a night 


picket of Imperial horse, all of which he slew or captured, 
thus rewinning the isle for Duke Bogislaus IV. He blew 
up the bridge, strengthened the castle of Rugenvalde by 
turf batteries, and then defended himself for nine weeks, 
till Hepburn's " Invincible Eegiment" advanced to his 
relief from Polish Prussia by order of the chancellor Oxen- 

On the 6th November 500 of Monro's Highlanders were 
ordered to defend to the last Cclberg, a half-ruined castle 
and town on the coast of Pomerania. He threw up redoubts, 
barricaded the approaches, and ere long the place was 
assailed by 8,000 Imperialists led by the famous Count de 
Monteculculi, under whom were the splendidly accoutred 
regiments of Goetz and Sparre, Charles, Wallenstein, 
Isolani, and Coloredo. Three troops of cuirassiers in white 
armour led the van, with three of Croats and 1,000 arque- 
bussiers, all of whom were hurled back in confusion by the 
steady Highland fire. On being summoned to treat for 
the surrender of the post, Monro replied : 

" The word treaty has been omitted in my instructions ; 
thus I have only powder and ball at the service of the 
Count de Monteculculi." 

A dreadful strife ensued. The whole town was laid in 
ashes. The Reay regiment retired into the castle, and, 
despairing of success, the count drew off in the night, under 
cover of a mist, thus admitting that 500 Highlanders could 
repel sixteen times their number of Germans. 

On the 13th November another deadly struggle took 
place, amid mist and darkness, between the Imperialists 
7,000 strong and the Swedish infantry, under the young 


Graf of Thurn. They fled almost without firin j a shot, 
but the Scottish musketeers of Lord Reay and Hepburn 
held their ground, and poured in their volleys steadily till 
the unaccountable flight of the Swedish cavalry left their 
flanks uncovered, and they too fell back, with the loss of 
500 men, many shooting their comrades in the confusion, 
says Harte. 

In 1631, Gustavus, on representing his desire to free 
Germany from the oppression of the Emperor Ferdinand, 
received from England and other countries .108,000, with 
a promise of 6,000 infantry, raised by the Marquis of 
Hamilton, who, previous to his departure, received the 
Order of the Garter from Charles I. 

Colonel John Monro of Obsdale now offered another 
regiment of Highlanders for the Swedish service, and 
Colonel Sir James Lumsden (brother of Invergellie) brought 
over a battalion of Lowland infantry. His eldest brother, 
the laird, was senior captain of a company, in which the 
ensign was the famous Sir James Turner, the cavalier 
memorialist. Robert Lumsden was murdered in cold blood 
by the English at the sack of Dundee twenty years after, 
but Monro of Obsdale was slain in battle at Wettereau, on 
the banks of the Rhine. (Scots Nation Vindicated, 1714.) 

Robert Scott was quartermaster-general of the Swedish 
army, and afterwards general in Denmark. His bust in 
Lambeth Church has been engraved. David Barclay of 
Mathers and Anthony Haig of Beimerside, the latter with 
50 horse, with three sons of Boswell of Auchinleck, John 
and Robert Durham of Pitkerow, and Francis and Alexan- 
der Leslie of Wardis, all ioined the Swedish army at this 


time. " Mackay, our countryman, is in great honour," 
wrote James Baird, the commissary, to his brother Auch- 
medden, in 1631, "and is general over three regiments, and 
captain of the King of Sweden's, quhilk consist of 
100 horse and 100 foot, and sail be all Scotsmen." (Sur- 
name of Baird.) There, too, came George Buchanan of 
Auchmar, a captain. He vanquished an Italian swords- 
man in single combat, for which he was made major, but 
was killed in action soon after. (History of the Buchanans.) 
Thus in the second campaign against the empire the 
Swedish army, according to Burnett, was almost entirely 
led by Scottish officers. 

The love and spirit of adventure must have been keen in 
those days which lured so many brave Scots abroad at a 
time when locomotion was tedious and difficult, and even 
all ideas of locality beyond their native hills and glens were 
vague and dim indeed. 

lu the March of 1631 Sir James Hepburn, in his 30th 
year, was at the head of the Green brigade, as it was 
named, comprising the four finest battalions of the army, 
viz., his own old regiment, the Reay Highlanders, Lumsden's 
musketeers, and Stargate's corps. The brigade was so 
termed from the colour of its scarfs and plumes, as the 
other brigades were white, blue, and yellow. "With the 
green, Hepburn led the van of the Swedish army, which, 
with armour burnished, colours flying, and matches lit, 
began its march for Frankfort-on- the- Oder, as Monro says 
(in the words of Dalgetty), under " the Lyon of the North, 
the invincible King of Sweden of never-dying memory." 
(Exped.,y. 17.) 


After distinguishing themselves at the capture of the 
castle of Trepto, where Major Sinclair was left with two 
companies, the Scots captured Dameine, and then followed 
their defence of New Brandenburg, when 600 of Lord 
Reay^s men were placed in garrison under his lieutenant- 
colonel, Lindsay, who had been thrice dangerously wounded 
at the defence of Stralsund. 

After nine days' resistance against the most overwhelming 
odds, all mercy and quarter being refused them, the entire 
wing of the Reay Highlanders was savagely cut to pieces 
a circumstance that inspired all the Scots in the army with 
fury against the Imperialists and their ruthless leader, Count 

Colonel Lindsay fell pike in hand in the breach, and there 
every officer and man perished by his side, save two 
Captain Tnnes and Lieutenant Lumsden who swam the 
wet ditch in their tartans and armour, and reached Hepburn's 
brigade, then pushing on to Frankfort, where Count 
Schomberg barred the way with 10,000 veterans. As the 
Highland marching song has it 

" In the ranks of great Gustavus, 
With the bravest they were reckoned, 

Agus O, Mhorag ! 
3o-ro ! march together ! 

Agus O, Mhorag !" 

Longing for vengeance, Hepburn's brigade was, as 
stated, in the van of a column consisting of 18,000 men, 
which, with 200 guns and a pontoon bridge, followed the 
course of the Oder to Frankfort, where Count Schomberg, 
who had laid waste all the adjacent district, commanded, 


while Marshal Home held the Pass of Schwedt to prevent 
Tilly from harassing the Swedish rear. Directed by the 
advice of Hepburn (according to Monro), Gustavus made 
his dispositions for the investment, and every column 
marched to its place the horse with trumpets sounding, 
the foot with drums beating, matches lit, and pikes ad- 

All the artillery and stores not required were in rear of 
Hepburn's brigade. In Frankfort, we have stated, were 
10,000 men under Schomberg, Monteculculi, and others, 
while the weakest point was assigned to a regiment of Irish 
musketeers, led by that Walter Butler to whom we have 
referred in Austria. When reconnoitring with Hepburn, 
the king narrowly escaped capture by a party which made 
a dash at him, but was repulsed by Hepburn's musketeers, 
led by Major John Sinclair, who drove in the Imperialists 
under cover of their batteries and made some prisoners. 
After the Guchen Gate had been reconnoitered by twelve 
Scottish soldiers, and the batteries on every side, on 
the 3rd of April the king ordered a general assault under 
cover of the smoke. 

" Now my brave Scots," cried he, as he called to Hepburn 
and Sir James Lumsden by name, " remember your country- 
men who were slain at New Brandenburg !" (Swedish In- 
telligencer, 1632.) On swept the stormers under a storm 
of lead, iron, and brass bullets, led by Hepburn and Lums- 
don, having each a petard holding 20 pounds of powder. 
These blew the gate to fragments, and in that quarter the 
Scots fought their way in. 

Elsewhere Monro' s Highlanders crossed the wet ditch, 


where the water rose to their necks, planted their ladders 
against the scarp, and stormed the palisades with pike and 
sword ; while the Blue and Yellow brigades, all led by Scots- 
men, swept away Butler's Irish and all who opposed them. 

Hepburn was wounded, says Monro, " above the knee 
that he was lame of before. 1 ' 

"Bully Monro," cried he, " I am shot !" 

A major took his place, but was shot dead. Then 
Lumsden and Monro, having joined, pushed on, turned 
their own cannon on the Austrians, and blew their heads 
and limbs into the air. To their cries of " quarter" on 
every hand the grim response was 

" New Brandenburg ! Remember New Brandenburg !" 

One Scottish pikeman (says the Swedish Intelligencer) 
slew eighteen Austrians with his own hand, and Lumsden's 
regiment captured nine pairs of colours. Fifty of Hepburn's 
men were charged by a regiment of cuirassiers in a 
buvy ing-ground; but Major Sinclair formed them back to 
back, and repulsed the assailants. Twice the Imperialists 
beat a parley, but it was unheeded. " Still the combat 
continued, the carnage went on, and still the Scots brigade 
advanced in close columns of regiments, shoulder to 
shoulder, like moving castles, their long pikes levelled in 
front, while the rear ranks of musketeers volleyed in 
security from behind." 

Schombergand Monteculculi, escorted by a few cuirassiers, 
fled by a bridge towards Glogau, leaving 40 officers and 
3,000 men dead behind them, while hundreds threw them- 
selves into the Oder and were drowned. But Gustavus 
lost only 300 men, and had only two officer; of rank 


wounded Sir John Hepburn and Baron Teuffel. The 
former took possession of the ramparts and posted guards 
round the city, of which Major-General Leslie was made 
governor, and his first task was to bury the dead 100 in 
every grave. 

The capture of Landsberg, on the Warta, was the next 
task- the key of Silesia. Hepburn invested it on one side, 
Marshal Home on the other, while Monro ran the parallels, 
and got his men entrenched, with the loss of six only, before 
dawn on the 5th, their long lines of matches shining like 
glowworms in the dusk. The town was attacked in the 
dark, and the Austrians under old Count Grata were 
hemmed in on every side, as Hepburn stormed the chief 
redoubt in three minutes, and Monro cut off a sortie with 
the loss of only 30 Highlanders. Grata marched out next 
morning with the honours of war, accompanied by no less 
than 2,000 female camp followers. 

Hepburn's brigade was next at the investment of Berlin, 
and was afterwards encamped among the swamps of Old 
Brandenburg, 34 miles from the capital. There, amid the 
miasma of the Havel, 34 of Monro's men died in one week 
among them Robert Monro, a quartermaster-sergeant, 
and Sergeant Robert Munro, son of Culcraig. But July 
saw the brigade leave that district of frowsy fogs, where 
only sour black beer could be had, to cross the Elbe, beyond 
which the Swedish cavalry captured Wolmerstadt ; while 
the Laird of Foulis stormed the castle of Blae at the head 
of his Highlanders, and Banier took Havelberg from the 
garrison of Pappenheim, on whose person there were said to 
be the marks of a hundred wounds. (Scots Mag., 1804.) 

THE SCOTS IN SWEDEN. (Continued.) 

The Marquis of Hamilton's Contingent Capture of Guben 
Battle of Leipzig Capture of Mersberg, etc. Passage of 
the Rhine Capture of Oppenheim. 

" IN these warrs" (says the Swedish Intelligencer, part ii), 
" if a fort be to be stormed, or any desperate piece of service 
to be set upon, the Scottish have always had the honour 
and the danger to be the first men that are put upon such 
a business." 

Colonel Robert Monro of Foulis, to whom we refer so 
often, was a well-trained soldier, and began his career 
as a private gentleman in the French Guards, and he tells 
us : " I was once made to stand, in my younger years, at 
the Louvre Gate in Paris, for sleeping in the morning when 
I ought to have been at my exercise, from eleven before noon 
to eight of the clock at night, sentry, armed with corslet, 
headpiece, bracelets, being iron to the teeth, in a hot 
summer day, till I was weary of my life, which always 
made me more strict in punishing those under my com- 

The coming contingent of 6,200 men under the Marquis 
of Hamilton, then a very young man, was delayed in its 
departure by an accusation of treason brought from Holland 
against Hamilton by Lord Ochiltree, son of the notorious 


Captain Stuart, who, during the minority of James VI, 
had usurped the estates of the Hamilton family. The 
malicious fabrication averred that Colonel Ramsay, the 
agent of Gustavus, had told Lord Reay that the troops, 
instead of being destined for Germany, were to be em- 
ployed in raising Hamilton to the throne of Scotland. A 
challenge was the result ; but the duel a public one was 
forbidden. The expedition sailed on the 4th August, after 
the Scots from Leith had joined the English in Yarmouth 
Roads, and safely reached the banks of the Oder. The 
rumour that it consisted of 20,000 men had a material 
effect on the campaign. 

Soon there were none but Scots left of the contingent, as 
the English all perished, says Harte, on the march between 
Wolgast and Werben, by overeating themselves with 
" German bread, which is heavier, darker, and sourer than 
their own ; they suffered too by an inordinate fondness for 
new honey ; nor did the German beer agree with their con- 
stitutions." There were now four regiments, consisting 
each of ten companies, in each of which were 150 pikes 
and muskets. They had several pieces of cannon, including 
some of Sir Alexander Hamilton's, known by the Scots as 
" Sandy's Stoups." (Memoirs of the House of Hamilton, 

The marquis was hard-visaged, wore his hair cut short, 
and adopted often a calotte cap ; was sombre in expression, 
and fond of quoting Gustavus. (Warwick's Memoirs.) 

After a conference with the latter, the young marquis 
marched his contingent towards Silesia, and after storming 
the frontier town of Guben, in Brandenburg, he advanced 



to Glogau, a strongly fortified city (60 miles from Breslau), 
which his Scots would have taken easily, as it was insuffi- 
ciently garrisoned ; but he was recalled by Gustavus to 
Custrin, and despatched to assist in the reduction of Mag- 
deburg. His force, reduced now by casualties to 3,500 
men, took possession of the town, which the aged 
Pappenheim abandoned ; but Hamilton's force continued to 
dwindle, till, by pestilence, privation, and the sword, there 
remained of it only two battalions commanded by Colonel 
Sir Alexander Hamilton and Sir William Bellenden of 
Auchnoule (afterwards Lord Bellenden of Broughton, near 
Edinburgh). These were incorporated with" the column of 
the Duke of Saxe- Weimar, while the marquis rode as a 
mere volunteer on the staff of the Swedish king. (Harte, 
JSurnett, etc.) 

The latter was now marching toward the Pass of Witten- 
berg, en route recalling from Havelburg the regiment of 
the Laird of Foulis, who had been joined by a fresh body 
of Scottish recruits, chiefly under Robert Munro of Kii- 
ternie, who died at the former place of marsh fever, and 
was buried by his clansmen with military honours. 

On the plains of Leipzig God's Acre the same ground 
on which Charles V overthrew the Emperor of Saxony on 
the memorable 7th of September, 1631, the army of Gueta- 
vus, 30,000 strong, encountered that of Count Tilly, num- 
bering 44,000. On that eventful day the Scottish brigades 
covered the advance and rear of the attacking force. 

In the van were the Scottish regiments of Sir James 
Ramsay the Black, the Laird of Foulis, and Sir John 
Hamilton, which on crossing the Loben found themselves 


face to face with the splendid Imperialists chiefly cuiras- 
siers, whom Ramsay at once engaged. 

Hepburn commanded the reserve, which included his 
own brigade, which marched with colours flying the Green 
brigade displaying four. * Go 1 Mitus !" was the war-cry of 
the Swedes ; "Sancta Maria !" that of the Imperialists, before 
whom rose a flight of birds, taken as an omen of victory. 

The Saxons, who formed the S.vedish left, gave way, on 
which Tilly prepared to charge the Swedes and Livonians 
at the head of his main body ; " but now Grustavus selected 
2,000 musketeers of the brave Scottish nation," says the old 
Leipzig account, and covered ea ;h flank with 1,000 horse, 
while the Scottish officers formed their men into columns 
of about 600 each three front ranks kneeling, three 
standing erect, and all pouring in their fire together a 
platoon method adopted for the first time, which struck 
terror, amazement, and destruction in the Austrian ranks. 
(Harte's Gustavus.) 

Thus they closed up, till Hepburn gave the order 
" Forward, pikemen !" Then muskets were clubbed, pikes 
levelled, and the regiments of Hepburn, Lumsden, Ramsay, 
and Monro, each led by its colonel, burst like a whirlwind 
through the Austrian ranks, when all order became lost 
and their retreat began amid disorder, dust, and smoke. 
" We were as in a dark cloud," wrote Monro, " whereupon, 
having a drummer by me, I caused him beat the Scots' 
March till it cleared up, which re-collected our friends to 

This old national cadence on the drum was the terror of 
the Spaniards in Flanders, so much so, that it was often 


beaten " by the lubberly Dutches," we are told, " when they 
wished their quarters to be unmolested in the night." 

All Tilly's baggage, cannon, and standards were taken, 
and 7,000 at least of his men were slain. " The Scots 
made great bonfires of the broken waggons and tumbrils, 
the shattered stockades and pikes that strewed the field : 
and the red glow of these as they blazed on the plains of 
Leipzig, glaring on the glistening mail and upturned face" 
of the dead, was visible to the Imperialists as they retreated 
towards the Weser." 

By this decisive victory the whole German empire was 
laid open to the invaders, from the Baltic to the Rhine, and 
from the mouth of the Oder to the sources of the Danube, 
and terror was struck to the heart of the Catholic league ; 
100 captured standards were hung in the Eidderholm 
Kirche at Stockholm ; and Colonels Lumfden and Monro, 
Majors Monipenny and Sinclair, and others, were rewarded 
for their merit in that day's victory, which Gustavus won, 
says old Monro, enthusiastically, " with the help of a nation 
that never was conquered by a forraine enemy the invincible 
Scots ! 

Three days after, at the capture of Mersberg, when 1,500 
were killed or taken, Colonel Hay's regiment stormed the 
outworks; but Major-General Thomas Kerr was slain, and 
Captain Mackenzie of Suddie wounded through his helmet, 
after which he k'll.d his assailant by a pike-thrust. On 
the llth September, at the capture of Moritzberg, Captain 
William Stuart, of Monro's regiment, led the musketeers, 
and prayers were offered up in the cathedral church of St. 
Ulric ; while at an entertainment that followed, Gustavn> 


presented his Scottish officers to the Elector of Saxony and 
other Protestant princes. 

" Monro," said he, taking the Laird of Foulis by the hand, 
" I wish you to be master of the bottles and glasses to-night, 
and bear as much wine as old Major- General Sir Patrick 
Ruthven, that you may assist me to make my guests 
merry." (Naylor's Mil. Hist, of Germany, Harte, etc.) 

As the war went on, when Hepburn's brigade approached 
the capital of Franconia, he marched in peacefully, 
according to terms he had granted to Father Ogilvie, a 
venerable priest of the Scottish cloister, who had visited 
him on behalf of the bishop and citizens. 

At Marienburg on the Maine the passage of Gustavus 
was disputed by the castellan, Captain Keller, " a brave, 
good fellow, who hated all Protestants, and believed that 
none could reach him unless they had wings as well as 
weapons"; but Sir James Eamsayhad orders to capture the 
place at all hazards. He sent Lieutenant Robert Ramsay, 
who spoke German well, to procure some boats ; but his rich 
costume exciting suspicion, the latter was made prisoner. 

The guns of Marienburg enfiladed the bridge of the 
Maine, the broken central arch of which was crossed by a 
plank admitting but one man at a time, where sixty might 
have marched abreast before, and fifty feet below rolled 
the dark river. On the 5th October, Ramsay's undaunted 
soldiers advanced to the assault, led by Major Both well, of 
the family of Holyrood House, who with his brother was 
shot dead at the gorge of the tete-du-pont, where most of 
their soldiers perished with them ; but Hamilton and 
Ramsay, with the main body of the regiment, passed the 


stream in boats under a cannonade, and bivouacked iu 
llieir armour on the bank under the fortress, which they 
escaladed at daybreak. The stormers were chiefly officers, 
armed with a partisan and a brace of pistols in their sword- 
belts. Ramsay had an arm broken, but Hamilton led 
them on, and, after a two hours' conflict, the half-moon 
battery was won, when it was heaped with corpses and 
slippery with blood and brains. 

"Give them Magdeburg quarter!" was the cry of the 
Swedish supports as they came up; and then Gustavus 
ordered the Scots to retire and the Blue brigade to advance. 
Perhaps he thought they had done enough ; but this was 
an affront which the Scottish troops never forgave, for Sir 
John Hamilton resigned his commission on the spot. Sir 
James Ramsay received a large grant of land in the Duchy of 
Mecklenburg, with the government of Hainan (Lord Hailes, 
irouiLocen. Hist.); and the two Both wells were interred with 
all honours, side by side, in the church of St. Kilian the 
Scot, in the city ; and so ended the storming of Marienburg. 

The next service of the Scots was the defence of 
Oxenford on the Maine, to prevent the vast force of the 
Imperialists, said to be 50,000 strong, from crossing the 
river. Hepburn, who commanded, undermined the bridge, 
threw up works, cut down trees that might impede his fire, 
and made every preparation for a vigorous defence in the 
early days of a stormy October, till the enemy came on, 
with their shouts, drums, and trumpets " making such n 
r.oise as though heaven and earth were coming together," 
says Monro. 

Thirty-six Scots musketeers of Lumsden's corps, who had 


been advanced with videttes under Sergeant-Major Mom- 
penny , were driven in, and the armour of the latter was 
soreiy battered by pistol-balls; and when day broke, Hepburn 
discovered that the whole Imperial army had taken the 
route for Nuremberg by the way of Weinsheim. 

The king now reinforced him with 500 men, and sent 
orders to abandon the tosvn in the dark, pass the Imperial- 
ists, and occupy the place they were approaching to wit, 
Weinsheim : orders which were obeyed with alacrity. 
Hepburn blew up the bridge, and with pikes and muskets 
at the trail retreated at the double just as day dawned on 
the mountains of Bavaria. 

His Scots formed the van of the army, which, after a 
five days' march through a fertile country, reached in the 
middle of November Aschaffenberg, a stately city of the 
Bishop of Mentz, on which 300 of Ramsay's regiment, led 
by Major Hanna (of the family of Sorbie, we believe), had 
already hoisted the three crowns of Sweden ; while 200 
Scots of Sir Ludovick Leslie's regiment took possession of 
Busselsheim on the Maine, and held it under Captain Mac- 

Two more Scottish regiments, under Sir Frederick 
Hamilton and Alexander, Master of Forbess, had now 
joined Gustavus, who had thus thirteen entire Scottish 
battalions of infantry. 

He had five others, composed of English and Irishmen, 
officered chiefly by Scotsmen ; and he resolved now to turn 
his arms against the Palatinate, then held by a body of 
Spanish troops under Don Philippo de Sylvia. He entered 
the Bergstrasse and reached the Rhine, when Count Bralie, 


with 300 Swedes and 300 Scots of the regiments of Beay, 
Ramsay, and the Laird of Wormiston, crossed the stream 
and entrenched themselves, after repulsing no less than 
fourteen squadrons of Imperial cuirassiers, who fled to 
Oppenheim. Seventy years afterwards, a marble lion was 
erected on a column 60 feet in height, to mark the spot 
where Gustavus, with his Swedes and Scots, passed the 
great river of Germany. (Schiller, Harte, etc., etc.) 

On the Imperial side of the Rhine rose the town and 
castle of Oppenheim. On the other was a strong redoubt 
girt by double ditches full of muddy water ; these were 
crossed by a narrow bridge. A thousand resolute Italian 
and Burgundian veterans held it, and Hepburn's brigade 
was ordered to capture the place, thus to facilitate the 
passage of the army. 

On Sunday, the 4th December, 1631, he broke ground be- 
fore it, and, just as the king was about to order an assault, 
the promise of some boats led to a countermand. The 
White brigade crossed thus in the night, and, with drums 
beating, marched towards Oppenheim as day broke. 
Meanwhile, the Scots near the redoubt had lit fires behind 
their earthworks, when Hepburn and Monro supped to- 
gether, enjoying, we are told, " a jar of Low Country wine," 
when the light shining on their armour attracted the 
Imperials, who fired in their direction a 32-pound shot) 
which knocked to pieces Colonel Hepburn's coach, while a 
second killed a sergeant of Mouro's, " by the fire driuking 
a pipe of tobacco," as the colonel curiously phrases it ; and 
now many men of the brigade were cut in two or torn 
to pieces by round-shot, which dyed with blood all the 


snow through which the parallels were cut. At midnight 
200 Burgundians made a desperate sally, but the Scots 
were on the alert, and, after some gallant fighting, sharply 
repulsed them. 

On seeing the White brigade approaching Oppenheinn 
the cavalier who commanded in the redoubt, fearing that 
his retreat would be cut off, sent a little Italian drummer 
with articles of capitulation to Sir John Hepburn, who 
permitted him to march out by the way of Bingen, but to 
leave all cannon behind him. The redoubt was now 
occupied by 200 of Lumsden's musketeers and 100 of 
Beay's, while 200 of Ramsay's captured the gates of 
Oppenheim just as Gustavus assailed the castle. Ramsay's 
wound caused his absence, but his regiment was led by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas ; and so sharp was the service 
it saw, that, though originally 2,000 strong, only 200 
survived at the close of the war, and of these few ever saw 
Scotland again. (Fowler's Southland, 1656.) 

Hepburn, having procured 107 boats, brought over his 
own brigade and the Blue, and as these approached the 
castle they were surprised to hear discharges of musketry 
'within it, and to see the garrison leaping over the outworks 
and seeking to escape in every direction. 

It would seem that the two hundred Scots who had 
captured the gates of Oppenheim had discovered a secret 
passage to the castle. Led by Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas, 
they drove in the station guards, and, reaching the 
heart of the place, engaged in a desperate hand-to-hand 
conflict with the garrison. Nine companies of Italians, 
each 100 strong, were taken prisoners in the redoubt, and 


"the king," says Harte, " made a present of them to Hep- 
burn (whose kindness and humanity were equal to his 
bravery) to refit his broken brigade." But they all 
deserted en masse from Beyerland a few months subse- 
quently. Gustavus, on entering the castle, which had 
been taken ere he could reach it, was received with a salute 
by Ramsay's musketeers. 

" My brave Scots !" he exclaimed, " why were you too 
quick for me ?" 

A " Handbook" of 1843 states that a ruined chapel 
within the churchyard of Oppenheim is half-filled with the 
skulls and bones of those who fell on this occasion ; and it 
was to Scottish valour that Gustavus owed nine pair of 
colours, the first he had ever taken from the Spaniards. The 
Swedish Intelligencer exultingly records how they fell on 
here, with " such tempest and resolution." 

The following Sunday saw Hepburn's Scots before the 
walls of Mentz, deemed then by the Germans their best 
bulwark against France, and held by 2,000 chosen Castillian 
troops under Don Philippo de Sylvia. " Colonel Hepburn's 
brigade (according to use) was directed to the most 
dangerous posts next the enemy," whose fire from the ' 
citadel slew many of his men ere they got under cover of 
their parallels. Then Colonel Axel Lily, a Swedish officer, 
came next night to visit Hepburn and Monro, and being 
invited to sup with them, " in a place from which the snow 
had been cleared away, the three cavaliers sat down by a 
large fire that the soldiers had lighted, and regaled themselves 
on such viands as the foragers had procured, spitted upon 
old ramrods or sword-blades. Every moment the flashes 


broke brightly from the citadel, and the cannon-shot 
boomed away over their heads into the obscurity of the 
night, or plashed into the deep waters of the Rhine behind 
them. They were all discoursing merrily, when Axel Lily 
said to Hepburn, laughing as he listened to the Spanish 
cannon, and ducking his head as a ball passed, " If any 
misfortune should happen to me now, what would be 
thought of it ? I have no business here, exposed to the 
enemy's shot.' " 

Soon after a ball carried off one of his legs ; but the 
king heaped so many sinecures upon him that his Scottish 
comrades could not help envying him, though he had ever 
after to march " with a tree or wooden legge." (Monro's 
Expedition, etc.) 

Mentz surrendered ; the bells of the glorious cathedral 
saluted Gustavus, and Hepburn's brigade exchanged the 
snowy trenches for quarters in the city, where they spent 
the Christmas; and the king's court was attended by 
twelve ambassadors and the flower of the German 

In Mentz the Green brigade remained till the 5th March, 
1632, getting more recruits from Scotland, and the 
regiment, vacant by the resignation of Sir John Hamilton, 
was now commanded by old Sir Lodovick Leslie. 

Previously (in February) Gustavus had marched against 
Creutzenach, on the Nahe, a well-built town, defended by a 
castle ; and on this expedition he took with him 300 of 
Ramsay's musketeers, under Lieutenant-Colonel Robert 
Douglas, of whom his secretary, Fowler, has left us an 
ample account in his folio work, dated 1656, in his "Life 


of Sir George Douglas, Kniglit, lord ambassador extraor- 
dinary for the peace between Sutherland and Poland." 

This officer was the son of Sir George Douglas of 
Mordington (a cadet of the house of Torthorwald) and 
Margaret Dundas of Fingask. Passing a party of English 
volunteers under Lord Craven, who held the trenches, 
where they certainly suffered severely, he stormed the 
" Devil's Works," as they were named, at Creutzenach, of 
which he was made governor till the recovery of Ramsay 
from his wound. Douglas incurred the displeasure of 
Gustavus before the battle of Lutzen, and, after being the 
ambassador of Charles I, died in 1635. At the capture of 
Creutzenach 47 of Ramsay's men were killed, including 
Captain Douglas, shot through the heart. 

THE SCOTS IN SWEDES. (Continued.) 

Bingen on the Rhine The Invasion of Bavaria Passage of 
the Lech Occupation of Munich Altenburg. 

SIR PATRICK RUTHVEN having been made governor of Him, 
Monro with some of his regiment was dispatched to 
Bingen on the Rhine, which, with the " Massive Tower" (of 
Bishop Hatto's old legend), was then held by a wing of 
Ramsay's regiment. Drawing off a captain with 100 
Scots, he marched to the succour of the Rhingrow at 
Coblentz, where with twenty troops of horse he was about 
to be attacked by 10,000 Spaniards from Spain. Four of 
their regiments of horse fell suddenly on his cantonments, 
which were in several open villages, but these were so 
resolutely charged by only four troops of Swedes, led by 
Rittmaster Hume of Carrelside, that 300 of them were 
slain, and the Count of Napau was taken prisoner. 

Soon after this, two small towns on the Rhine, named 
Bacharach, which was encircled by antique walls, with 
twelve towers, and Stahleck, the ancient seat of the 
Electors Palatine, were stormed by Ramsay's musketeers, 
led by Major Hanna, who, in consequence of the resistance 
he met, put all within them to the sword, the officers 
excepted. According to Hope, the beautiful church of 


St. Werner at Stahleck, was demolished on this occasion, 
but the pointed windows still show the most delicate 

In the Swedish force of 14,000 horse and foot, now else- 
where moving up the Elbe, were five battalions of Scots, 
viz., one of Lumsden's, under Lieutenant-Colonel Robert 
Stuart ; the Master of Forbess's regiment, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sir Arthur Forbess ; Sir Frederick Hamilton's 
regiment ; Colonel Monro of Obisdale's regiment ; and 
Colonel Robert Leslie's Old Scots regiment, with one of 
Englishmen, led by Colonel Vavasour. This force cleared 
the whole Duchy of Mecklenburg, storming castles and 
capturing towns ; and so great was the terror now generally 
excited by their achievements, that, on the advance of 
Gnstavus towards the Moselle, the presence of so many 
Presbyterian soldiers alarmed Cardinal Richelieu, and fur- 
nished him with a powerful argument for seeking to turn 
Louis XIII from the Swedish alliance. The spring of 
the year saw old Sir Alexander Leslie of Balgonie the 
future champion of the Covenant with his Dutch and 
Swedish veterans hovering like a crowd over the fertile 
plains of Lower Saxony. He was then field-marshal, and 
governor of all the cities on the Baltic coast. 

Major-General Sir David Drummond was then governor 
of Stettin. The Earl of Crawford, Colonels Baily, King, 
Douglas, Hume, Gunn, and Hugh Hamilton, had all Dutch 
regiments ; also two Colonels Forbess, John and Alexander, 
called the Bald, with many more too numerous to mention. 

The early days of March saw Hepburn's brigade and 
the other Scots with Gustavus on the march to Bavaria, 


while the chancellor, Oxtenstiern, who had remained with 
a strong force to guard the conquests on the Rhine, repelled 
the enemy near Frankenthal, in which affair the Dutch, 
who formed the first column, when they saw the Spaniards, 
resorted to their old ruse of beating the Scots' March to 
intimidate the enemy, and yet basely fell back ! But 
immediately upon this the Scottish regiment of Sir Lodo- 
vick Leslie and the battalion of Sir John Ruthven, * ; whose 
officers were all valiant Scots, Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Lesly, Major Lyell, Captain David King, and divers other 
resolute cavaliers," fell on with sword and pike, driving 
back the Spaniards in confusion. So furious was their 
charge and so complete their victory that the chancellor 
of Sweden in front of the whole line " did sweare that had 
it not beene for the valour of thet Scots Briggad they had all 
beene lost and defeated by the Spaniard." (Monro, part ii, 
p. 114.) 

The 26th of March saw Gustavus before Donamvdrth, 
the key of Swabia, where he was joined by the Laird of 
Foulis with his two regiments. The place guarded a forti- 
fied mountain, and was rendered strong by its embattled 
walls and deep ditches, commanding the bridge across the 

The Duke of Saxe-Lauenberg occupied the city with 
2,500 men. A toll was levied then, and he vowed the toll 
paid by Gustavus in passing the river would be the lives of 
his bravest soldiers though the works were without cannon. 
A handsome street led to the town-gate, and in the former 
Gustavus placed 500 musketeers to prevent a sortie, and 
completed a twenty-gun battery, guarded by a body o^ 


infantry under the Scottish Captain Semple. In the gloom 
of a dark night, a troop of Cronenberg's Reiters issued 
from the town-gate, hewel a passage through the 
musketeers, and full upon Semple's artillery guard, cutting 
it to pieces. Semple was put under arrest, but pardoned 
on the intercession of other Scottish officers. 

Hepburn now urged a flank movement, and, drawing off 
his own brigade with its field-pieces in silence, took up such 
an excellent position on the Swabian side that the captain 
of the place became assured. While his guns opened on 
the town, Gustavus assailed the Lederthor, and the former, 
leading his brigade across the corpse-strewn bridge ably 
seconded by Major Sidsorf, of Ramsay's regiment cut a 
passage in about daybreak ; thus the Scots won the key of 
Swabia, while the Swedes were still fighting in the Leother- 
gate. " Sir John Hepburn being thus gotten in," says the 
Intelligencer, " and having first cut to pieces all resistance, 
his souldiers fall immediately to plundering, when many a 
gold chain, with much other plate and treasure, were 
made prize of." 

By sunrise the carnage and uproar were over, and the king 
sent for the leader of the Scots. " Through streets encum- 
bered by rifled waggons, dismounted cannon, broken drums 
and arms, and terrified citizens wandering wildly among 
dead and dying soldiers, he made his way to a handsome 
house which had escaped the cannon-shot, and where he 
found Gustavus with Frederick of Bohemia, the lons:- 

7 o 

bearded Augustus of Psalzbach, and other men of rank, 
resting after the fatigue of the past night, with armour 
unbuckled and flagons of Rhenish before them." 


In their presence he thanked Hepburn for taking the 
town in flank with his Scots by the Hasfort bridge, after 
which the brigadier recrossed the Danube to throw up a 
battery at a point that was deemed of the first importance. 

After resting four days at Donauwo'rth Gustavus advanced 
at the head of 32,000 horse and foot to complete the 
passage of the Lech. 

In these Swedish wars were no less than 155 generals 
and field-officers, all Scotsmen, whose names are given at 
length in the Memoirs of Sir John Hepburn ; while the 
number of Scottish captains and subalterns will never be 

Among some of the most notable of the former were 
Generals Sir Andrew Rutherford, afterwards killed at 
Tangiers when Earl of Teviot ; Sir James Spence of 
Wormiston, afterwards Count of Orcholm, Lord of More- 
holm, and chancellor of Sweden ; George, Earl of Crawford- 
Lindsay, who was slain by a lieutenant of his regiment 
whom he had struck with a baton ; yet " General Lesly, 
being then governor of Stettin, when the earl was buried, 
caused him (the lieutenant) to be shot at a post." (Scots 
Nation Vindicated.) Another general was Sir James King 
of Barrocht, in Aberdeenshire, governor of Ylotho, on the 
Weser, who had to leave Scotland in 1619 for slaying 
Seaton of Meldrum, with whom his family was at feud. 
He was created Lord Eythen in 1642, but died childless 
and in obscurity. His title is extinct. 

Prior to the passage of the Lech, Hepburn's Scots, 
penetrating into a rocky gorge three miles from Donauworth, 
captured the castle of Oberndorff a grim edifice of the 

p 2 


middle a^es, situated amidst the gloomiest scenery killing 
or capturing 400 men ; but the count, "a mailed Hercules," 
hewed his way out and escaped. Hepburn then rejoined 
to assist in the passage of the Lech, which formed the last 
barrier of falling Bavaria a swift mountain torrent that 
rises in the Tyrol, and is in full flood, sweeping down rocks 
and timber, in May. 

On the 5th of April the two armies came in sight of each 
other, and the eyes of all Europe might be said to be fixed 
upon their movements. On the Imperial side 70 pieces of 
cannon protected the passage of that terrible stream, and 
thick, like fields of corn, the dense battalions of Tilly and 
the Elector pikes and musketeers held the point upon 
which Gustavus was marching, and the guns opened upon 

With 72 he replied, and for six- and- thirty hours the cross- 
fire was maintained, till rocksand trees were dashed to pieces. 
The Bavarians TV ere thrown into disorder, 1,000 of them 
were killed, with Count Merodi, and a bullet carried away 
a leg of old Count Tilly ; and then, amid the smoke of the 
batteries and that created by heaps of damp wood and 
ignited straw, Gustavus ordered his infantry to pass the 
stream, Hepburn and his Scots as usual on every piece of 
desperate work forming the van. Captain Forbes with 
thirty musketeers led the immediate way, and found the 
enemy had retired beyond gunshot, the Bavarian Elector 
retreating towards Ingolstadt, where the veteran Tilly 
expired, after resigning his baton to Wallenstein, the 
great Duke of Friedland. The invasion of Bavaria struck 
the Catholics of Europe with alarm ; but in its progress, 


says Monro, old Sir Patrick Ruthven, " with the young 
cavaliers of the Scots nation that followed him, such as 
Colonel Hugh Hamilton, ColonelJohn Fortune, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Gunne, Lieutenant- Colon el Montgomerie, Majors 
Ruthven, Bruntisfield, and divers other Scots captains, such 
as Dumbarve, who was killed by the boores," overran all 
Swabia, and laid every town under contribution from Ulm 
on the Danube to Lindon on the Lake of Constance. 

The Green brigade in these details we adhere chiefly to 
the Scots occupied eight days in besieging Ingolstadt, 
beyond which lay the Elector of Bavaria. On the 19th 
April a sally was expected, and all night the brigade lay 
under arms, from sunset till sunrise a night the longest 
in the year, it seemed, says Monro, " for by one shot I lost 
twelve men of my own companie, not knowing what became 
of them. He who was not that night afraid of cannon- 
shot might next day without harm have been brtiyed into 
gunpowder I" 

Gustavus had his horse shot under him, 300 men were 
killed, yet the Scots never flinched ; a work defended by 
1,500 Bavarian arquebuses was stormed; but the Margrave 
of Baden-Dourloch lost his head by a cannon-ball, and was 
buried beside Captain Ramsey of the Green brigade, who 
died of fever on the advance to Gesegnfeld. 

Hepburn and Count Home, with 8,000 troops, now in- 
vested Landshut, a tine city in Lower Bavaria, and on the 
march there the Scots suffered from the fanaticism and 
ferocity of the Bavarian boores, who murdered about fifty 
soldiers on the way by Augsburg, tearing out their eyes, 
cutting off" their noses and hands, in revenge for which the 


Swedes and Scots shot all who fell into thoir hands. Hep- 
burn was made governor of Landshut, honour being all 
he won ; but Home levied 20,000 dollars on his own account 
from the citizens. 

On the 7th May, 1632, the army of Gustavus entered 
Munich. Hepburn's brigade were the first troops in, and 
he was made governor of that beautiful capital, which no 
troops were allowed to occupy but his own brigade, and the 
Lord Spynie's Scots regiment, which entered with the 
king. To prevent plundering, five shillings per day was 
given to every man above his usual pay. 

Leaving Hepburn with his Scots to hold the Bavarian 
capital, Gustavus advanced to Augsburg to give battle to 
the Imperialists ; but they fell back towards the Lake of 
Constance, followed by the troops of Sir Patrick Ruthven. 

Colonels Forbes and Hamilton now raised two Swiss 
regiments ; but the latter were routed and scattered, and 
the two former were made prisoners. 

On the 4th June Hepburn's Scots relieved Weissenburg, 
a place of great importance ; after which he encamped at 
Furth, and was engaged in many defensive operations. 
Gustavus, having to confront an army of 60,000 men with 
only 20,000, formed an entrenched camp round Nuremberg, 
which had then six gates and walls armed with 300 pieces 
of cannon. Under Wallenstein the Imperialists endeavoured 
to cut off the supplies till the 21st August, when Gustavus 
attacked the heights of Altenberg, and the Scots were 
severely engaged in their attempt to storm the castle an 
affair in which 1,000 Scots and Irish musketeers, who 
served the Emperor under Gordon and Major Leslie, proved 


their most active antagonists. Monro was wounded ; 
Captain Patrick Innes was shot through the helmet and 
brow ; Colonel Mackean was killed ; Captain Trail, of 
Spynie's regiment, shot through the throat ; Hector Monro 
of Cadboll through the head ; and Captain Vaus, of Foulis' 
regiment, in the shoulder. Both Gordon and Leslie were 
taken and brought into the Swedish camp, where they 
were hospitably entertained by Hepburn, Munro, and other 
countrymen for five weeks, after which they were released. 
We have already referred to these officers in detailing the 
murder of Wallenstein, in the now ruined castle of Egar, 
in Bohemia. 

The two armies confronted each other till the 8th of 
September, when Gustavus retired, and 500 of Hepburn's 
Scots, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sinclair, covered 
the retreat at Neustadt. 

A few days afterwards the Marquis of Hamilton, being 
about to return to London, Sir John obtained leave to 
accompany him, having had a quarrel with the King of 
Sweden, of the real details of which no exact account has 
been preserved. In a fit of anger Gustavus is said to have 
upbraided Hepburn with his religion and the richness of 
his arms and apparel (Anderson's France, vol. v). Schiller 
adds that the brigadier was offended with Gustavus for 
having not long before preferred (to Sir John Hamilton ?) 
a younger officer to some post of danger, and rashly vowed 
never again to draw his sword in the Swedish quarrel. 

But Hepburn would seem not to have been the only 
Scottish officer with whom the great Gustavus seriously 
quarrelled. One day he so far forgot himself as to give a 


blow to Colonel Seaton, of the Green brigade, who, quitting 
his service, at once set out for the frontiers of Denmark. 
"The king," says Lord de Ros, condensing this anecdote, 
"ashamed of the insults he had put upon a brave and 
excellent officer, soon followed on a swift horse and overtook 
him. ' Seatou,' said he, ' I see you are justly offended ; 
I am sorry for it, as I have a great regard for you. I have 
followed to give you satisfaction. I am now, as you know, 
out of my own kingdom - we are equals ; here are pistols 
and swords; avenge yourself if you choose.' But Seaton 
declared he had already received ample satisfaction ; nor 
had the king ever a more devoted servant, or one more 
ready to lay down his life for this prince who had 
so generously redeemed his hasty and inconsiderate 

On the bank of the Bavarian Rednitz Gustavus erected 
three powerful batteries on the 22nd of August, and for 
the whole of that day cannonaded the Austrians under 
Wallenstein, who remained motionless, hoping, by famine, 
to conquer him ; but, after a time, Gustavus crossed the 
river with his whole force in order of battle, and took up a 
new position near Furth, a small open town in Middle 
Franconia, which enabled him to menace the left flank of 
the Imperialists. 

Hepburn had resigned, but when a battle was imminent 
he could not, with honour, remain idle in the rear, but, 
arming himself completely " in his magnificent inlaid 
armour, with casque, gorget, breast and back pieces, poul- 
drons, vambraces, and gauntlets, as if going on service," he 
mounted, and rode near the king, but by the side of Major- 

'Seaton,' said he, ' I see you are justly offended.'" p. 216 


General Busteine, wiu> was shot dead when the advance 

On the rocky summits of the Alta Feste, at the base of 
which flowed the Bednitz and the Biber, the Imperialists 
were entrenched behind breastworks and palisades, over 
which their long lines of polished morions, tall pikes, and 
arquebuses glittered in the sunshine, while 80 brass cannon 
peeped grimly forth from every bush and tree, over which 
circles of ravens were wheeling, marking where already a 
dead soldier or a charger lay. When the Swedes advanced 
in dense battalions, and the deadly strife began, shrouding 
the heights and the dominating mins on the Altenberg 
in fire and smoke, Hepburn, serving as a simple volun- 
teer, faced it all, while his old brigade advanced as 

" I will not believe there is a God in heaven if they take 
that castle from me !" exclaimed the impious Wallenstein, 
while, shading his eyes with a gauntleted hand, he watched 
the approach of four columns, each 500 strong, to assail the 
ancient fortress, which was the key of his position. 

" Selecting 2,000 chosen musketeers, chiefly Scotsmen," 
says Colonel Mitchell in his life of Wallenstein, these 
stormers, leaving their colours at the foot of the mountains, 
and supported by a column of pikes, advanced under a fire 
of 80 guns, that crashed through them, often, sweeping 
entire sections away, for " the Scots knew well that if they 
failed no other troops would attempt it." 

" Exposed to the whole enemy's fire, and infuriated by 
the prospect of immediate death," says Schiller in his 
Thirty Years' War, " those intrepid warriors rushed for- 


ward to storm the heights, which were in an instant con- 
verted into a flaming volcano." 

They were compelled to waver, even to retire down the 
steep precipices, where their killed and wounded were 
falling and rolling in scores ; but five other Scoto-Swedish 
columns came up vard in fierce and furious succession; and 
here Gustavus had a jack-boot torn off by a cannon-ball. 

Sheathed in light armour, Wallenstein's cuirassiers came 
filing forth under cover of the smoke, took the assailants in 
flank, captured General Tortensohn, and rode fairly through 
the Swedish infantry, through Cronenberg's "Invincibles," 
1,500 heavily-mailed horse, and were routed by only 200 
Finland troops, who drove them under the guns of the 
Altenberg, on which those of Gustavus are said to have 
fired 200,000 rounds that day. 

The most practicable assault was one suggested by Duke 
Bernard of Saxe- Weimar ; but an officer was required to 
reconnoitre the ground, and for this duty Sir John Hep- 
burn offered himself. (Harte.) 

" Go, Colonel Hepburn; I am grateful to you," said Gus- 

" Sir, it is practicable," reported Hepburn after he had 
ridden over the ground, exposed to the fire of the enemy, 
by which a faithful old sergeant was slain by his side. 

On this the Scottish regiments of Hamilton and Bellen- 
den carried the heights by storm, driving in the Austrians 
with terrible loss ; and 500 musketeers of the old Scots 
brigade, under Monro, kept the position till 500 more of 
their comrades, under Colonel John Sinclair, came up to 
reinforce them, " and these 1,000 Scots maintained their 


dangerous post all night." " Our brigades of foot had seven 
bodies of pikemen left to guard their colours," says Monro. 
The mutual losses were about 5,000 on both sides; 
" neare sixe thousand," according to Sir James Turner's 
military memoirs. 

Night fell, and the Swedish troops at the base of the hills 
were in peril of being cut off; on this Gustavus asked 
Hepburn to carry orders to them to withdraw. 

" Sir, I cannot decline this duty, as it is a hazardous one," 
he replied, and rode forward (Schiller). But for Hepburn's 
skill or decision these troops would have been utterly cut 
off; but he marched them to the king's post in the dark, 
and then, sheathing his sword, said, according to Modern 
Hist., vol. iii, " And now, sire, never more shall this 
sword be drawn for you ; this is the last time I will ever 
serve so ungrateful a prince." 

Yet, when day drew near, and it was reported that the 
Scottish musketeers of Sinclair and Monro lay too far in 
advance among the ruins of the Altenberg, he went by the 
king's request to see after them. 

" Sir," he reported, " I found the Scottish musketeers 
almost buried among mud and water ; but have discovered 
ground from whence four pieces of cannon might be brought 
to bear against the Altenberg at 40 paces' distance." 

But, after taking council, Gustavus ordered a general 
retreat ; he went in person to draw off the advanced Scots, 
and carried the half-pike of Colonel Monro, who was so 
severely wounded as to be scarcely able to walk. 


THE SCOTS IN SWEDES. (Continued.) 

Retreat to Neustadt Field-Marshals Leslie, Ruthven, Douglas, 
etc. Tragic Story of Major Sinclair Count Cromartie, etc. 

ON the 14th September, after his troops had suffered terribly 
from scarcity of food, Grustavus, leaving 500 men (including 
the Laird of Foulis* regiment) in Nuremberg, began his 
retrograde movement, with drums beating and colours 
flying, towards Neustadt, leaving no less than 10,000 
citizens and 20,000 soldiers dead behind him in and around 
the great Bavarian city the casualties of war. " Dead 
bodies," we are told, " infected the air ; and bad food, the 
exhalations from a population so dense, and from so many 
j utrefying carcases (when summer came), together with the 
heat of the dog-days, produced a desolating pestilencej 
which raged among men and beasts, and, long after the 
retreat of both armies, continued to load the country with 
misery and distress." 

We have thus shown how the valiant Sir John Hepburn 
left the Swedish army. 

But there would seem to have been at this time some 
discontent among the Scottish officers concerning the 
Marquis of Hamilton, who, they deemed, had been treated 
ungenerously ; but still more concerning Colonel Douglas 


of Modringfcon (the hero of Creutzenach), whom Gustavus 
had sent to a common prison for presenting himself un- 
ceremoniously in a tennis-court when he and the Elector of 
Bavaria were at play a punishment which the British 
ambassador, Sir Henry Vane, and all the Scots, resented as 
an insult. (Fowler's Southland.} 

When the gallant Hepburn and several other Scottish 
officers, including colonels Sir James Hamilton of Priest- 
field, now Edinburgh ; Sir James Ramsay, called " The 
Fair," took leave of their comrades, Monro informs us that 
the separation was like that " which death makes betwixt 
friends and the soul of man, being sorry that those who had 
lived so long together in amity and friendship, also in 
mutual dangers, in weal and in woe ; the splendour of our 
former mirth was overwhelmed with a cloud of grief and 
sorrow, which dissolved in mutual tears." 

The command of the brigade now devolved, on the 
death, at Ulna, of Colonel Monro of Foulis, on Robert 
Monro (brother of Obisdale), whose regiment was now so 
weak as to consist of seven companies instead of twelve 
as originally. Major John Sinclair, afterwards killed at 
Neumosk, was made lieutenant-colonel, and Captain 
William Stewart, major. This was " in Schwabland," on 
the 18th August, 1632, and at the end of September the 
Green brigade marched to the relief of Rayn, on the Acha, 
then besieged by the enemy, who abandoned it at the 
approach of Gustavus. The fact of there being in the 
army of the latter 27 field-officers and 11 captains of the 
clan of Monro causes some confusion with their names. 

The Scots brigade was now so much exhausted and 


thinned in numbers by hard service that he left it in 
quarters of refreshment in Bavaria, while he marched into 
Saxony. Before his departure he expressed " his approba- 
tion of the conduct of these valiant Scots or Moccosions, 
and exhorted the commanding officers to use every possible 
expedition in replacing the casualties in their respective 
regiments ; but this proved the final separation between 
the great Gustavus and these distinguished Soots regiments. 
His majesty marched to Saxony and was killed at the 
battle of Lutzen, when the chief Scots in the field were 
only Sir John Henderson, in the reserve, with the Palatian 
cavalry, on the 6th November, 1632. 

The king fell with eight wounds, one in the head, after 
having three horses shot under him, and being several times 
in the power of the enemy, but was always rescued by his 
own men. " Long have I sought thee," cried an Imperial 
cavalier, as he put a final shot through the body of the 
dying hero, and was shot down in turn by the Smoland 
cavalry. The last words of Gustavus were, " My God ! 
My God!" One of those mysterious boulders which have 
been transported from the mountains of Scandinavia, 
sheltered by a few poplars, and still called the Schnadenstein, 
or Stone of Sweden, marks the site of this catastrophe. 
With him died the hopes of the Elector Frederick. One of 
his swords is shown at Dresden, a second at Vienna, and 
a third was long in use by St. Machar's Masonic Lodge at 
Aberdeen. (Edinburgh Advertiser, 1768.) It was probably 
brought home by his aide-de-camp, Colonel Hugh Somer- 
ville, with his large rowelled spurs, taken off him on the 
Held, and now preserved in the Museum of Scottish 


Antiquities at Edinburgh, to which they were presented 
by Sir George Colquhoun, Bart., in 1768. Monro's work 
contains fully four folio pages of lamentation on his death. 
After that event this Green or old Scots brigade served 
for a short time under the weak Elector Palatine, and dis- 
tinguished itself at the siege and capture of Londsberg on 
the Lech, in Upper Bavaria, before which a foolish dispute 
about precedence arose between it and another, the brigade 
of Sir Patrick Ruthven. " But," says Monro, " those of 
Ruthven's brigade were forced, notwithstanding their 
diligence, to yield the precedence unto us, being older 
blades than themselves, for in effect we were their school- 
masters in discipline, as they could not but acknowledge." 
Colonel Sinclair, of Monro's, commanded the breaching 
battery at Londsberg, when two gaps were effected. The 
town was abandoned and entered by Major-General Ruth- 
ven. The sufferings of the troops were great about this 
time. After taking Londsberg they bivouacked for two 
months in the open fields, without tents or cover, in the 
extremity of cold and rough weather. 

In February, 163 >, the brigade crossed the Danube at 
Memmengen, and was quartered on the estates of Sir 
Patrick Ruthven. Bat their houses took fire in the night ; 
they saved their cannon and ammunition, but lost their 
baggage ; and then drove back the enemy, in sight of the 
snow-covered Alps. At the capture of a castle near Rauf- 
beuren Captain Bruntisfield and Quarter-master Sandilands 
were taken prisoners and sent to London. Then the 
brigade formed part of the army which, under Marshal 
Home and the Duke of Saxe Weimar, marched to the 


relief of Nordlingen, where the fortitude of the Swedes 
remained unconquered on the 26th August, 1634, but 
where they suffered so severely that, among others, Monro's 
once glorious regiment of Mackay, Lord Reay, was literally 
cut to pieces, one company alone surviving. 

After the battle this handful of men retired to Worms, 
on the left bank of the Rhine, and, Marshal Home having 
been taken prisoner, the remnants of the veteran Scots 
remained under the orders of Bernard, Duke of Saxe- 

The event of the battle of Nordlingen almost ruined 
the Protestant interests in Germany, and all the fighting 
of Gustavus and his veterans seemed to have been in 

Monro, a lieutenant-general in after years, was con- 
cerned in Glencairn's expedition to the Highlands against 
the Cromwellian troops in 1653-4, and fought a reckless 
duel with the earl. From Balcairn's Memoirs, touching 
the Revolution of Scotland, he would appear to have been 
alive in 1688, as he was then at the head of the militia, 
" but knew little more of the trade than these newly raised 
men, having lost by age, and being long out of service, 
anything he had learned in Gustavus's days, except 
the rudeness and austerity of that service." (Memoirs, 
edited by Lord Lindsay, 1841.) Several of his political 
and military pamphlets are preserved in the British 

Sir Alexander Leslie of Balgonie, as field-marshal, Sir 
Patrick Ruthven of Bondean, Sir Robert Douglas, and 
others still wielded their high rank in the Swedish army 


tinder Queen Christina, the young daughter of the great 
Gustavus, but their names only occur incidentally. 

Thus, when the talented Chancellor Oxenstiern held the 
reins of government during her minority, and was animated 
by an eager desire to obtain for Sweden possession of 
Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen, in the war which 
was waged the Saxons marched to the Elbe to give the 
Swedes battle, but Banier defeated them, and Sir Patrick 
Ruthven was detached with nearly all the Swedish horse 
and 1,000 musketeers to secure Domitz, a town at the 
influx of the Elde with the Elbe, and having ditches by 
which the adjacent country can be laid under water. 

Ruthven fell with his horse upon the Saxons, cut them 
off, captured 2,500, and forced them to serve in the 
Swedish army. It was now resolved that Wrangel should 
command a column on the Oder, Field-Marshal Sir Alex- 
ander Leslie another in Westphalia, and Banier on the Elbe, 
where he routed twelve Saxon battalions. Baron Knip- 
hauser lost his life and a battle elsewhere ; but Leslie mus- 
tered his defeated regiments, and with these and his own 
made himself master of Minden. He then formed a junc- 
tion with other Swedish troops who had been in the service 
of the Duke of Lunenberg, cleared Westphalia, relieved 
Hanau, and marched towards the Weser. 

He then joined Wrangel and Banier, attacked the Saxons 
in their fortified camp at Perleberg, and slew 5,000 in defeat- 
ing them. He routed also eight Saxon regiments near 
Edenburg, and cut off 2,000 men at Pegau ; but his services 
on the Continent were drawing to a clo^e. 

The unwarrantable interference of Charles I and the 



English with the religion of the Scots had now brought 
about the army of the Covenant, and Marshal Leslie, with 
hundreds of other trained officers who had been serving 
on the Elbe, the Oder, the Weser, and the Rhine, came 
flocking home to offer their swords and experience for the 
defence of Scotland. Noble indeed was the patriotism of 
those Scottish officers who came home to lead the armies 
of the Covenant. " In the armies of Gustavus there were 
found more commanders of Scots gentlemen than all other 
nations besides," says Gordon of Ruthven. " This did 
well appear in the beginning of the Covenant, when there 
came home so many commanders, all gentlemen, out of 
foreign countrayes as would have seemed to command one 
armie offyftie thousand and furnish them with all sorts of 
officers, from a generall doune to a sergeant or corporall." 
(Britones Distemper, 1639-1649.) 

Sir John Seaton of Gargunnock, colonel of Scots in 
Sweden, on being invited by Charles to join his army made 
that noble reply, which ought to have stung the king to 
the soul : 

" No, sire not against the country that gave me birth !" 
(Xewesfrom England, 1638.) 

The Swedish war still raged, and in 1644 Torstenson 
had secret orders to march into Holstein, whence the 
Danes had wrought the Swedes much mischief. He after- 
wards made a truce with the Elector of Saxony, and, 
marching into Bohemia, engaged the Imperialists at Jonko- 
witz on the 24th February, 1645, and defeated them with 
the loss of 8,000 men. Then his cavalry were led by Sir 
Robert Douglas (of the Whittingham family), who com- 


manded the left wing, and his cavalry charge is celebrated 
in military history " as being the first charge en muraillc 
(that is, firm, steady as a wall) ever executed against a 
formed body of infantry, and on this occasion i decided the 
fate of the day. (Life of Wallenstein.) Ferdinand, says 
Schiller, depended upon his cavalry, which outnumbered 
that of Douglas by 3,000 men, " and upon the promise of 
the Virgin Mary, who had appeared to him in a dream, and 
given him, he asserted, the strongest assurances of com- 
plete victory." (Thirty Years' War.) In 1648 came the 
Peace of Munster, when such was the state of Sweden that 
she could maintain 100 garrisons in Germany, ruling it 
from the Baltic to the Lake of Constance, besides sup- 
porting a veteran army of 70,000. How much Scottish 
valour contributed to this end these pages, perhaps, may 

Lord Reay died about 1650, governor of Bergen ; but 
his body was brought home and interred among his 
kindred in Strathnaver. 

When Charles X, in 1655, entered upon a war with 
John Casimir, King of Poland, he forced the latter to retire 
into Silesia and abdicate the Polish crown. In this war he 
gave orders to Sir Robert Douglas to make himself master 
of Mitau, an ancient fortified town in Courland, and to 
secure the person of the duke so named, as he had broken 
the neutrality. Douglas obeyed his orders with brilliant 
success, and brought the duke prisoner to Riga, from 
whence he was sent to Ivangorod, where he continned till 
the end of the war. 

Sir Robert Douglas was the son of Patrick Douglas of 



Standing -Staines, in East Lothian, and nephew of the 
Baron of Whittingham, a lord of session, whose represen- 
tative in the male line he became. His brothers, William, 
Archibald, and Richard, all died in the service of Sweden. 
Sir Robert was governor of East Gothland, and married a 
daughter of Count Steinbeck, according to Wood. He 
died a field-marshal in June, 1662, and his funeral was 
celebrated at Stockholm with great solemnity. It was 
attended by four squadrons of horse in armour, five com- 
panies of infantry, " their muskets under their left arms 
and tr liling their p'kes"; hundreds of officials in mourning 
cloaks ; his arms and armour borne on cushions ; a marshal 
went before the hearse, which was borne by 24 colonels and 
followed by the queen-consort and all the court. A herald 
proclaimed his titles, as privy-councillor of Sweden, 
field-marshal, counsellor to the College of War, Lord of 
Thalby, Hochstaten, Sangarden, and Earl of Shonegem ; 
and at the lowering of the coffin 120 pieces of cannon 
were fired, and all the horse and foot " gave two 
pales of shot." (Spottiswoode Miscell.) His eldest son, 
Count William, succeeded him in all his titles, and was 
A.D.C. to Charles XII, with whom he was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Pultowa in 1709. He had two other sons, 
one of whom became a general in the Russian service, and 
the other a captain in the Royal Swedish Guards. 

In that war, when Charles XII, at the age of sixteen, 
left Stockholm with only 8,000 Swedes to defeat eventually 
100,000 Muscovites, he was first under fire at Copenhagen 
at the head of his guards, and his closest attendant was 
Major Stuart. 


The young king, who had never before heard the dis- 
charge of loaded mutketry, asked that officer "what that 
whistling noise meant ?" " It is musket- balls," replied 
the latter. " That is right !" said Charles ; " henceforward 
it shall be my music." 

At that moment Major Stuart received a ball in the 
shoulder, and a lieutenant who stood on the other side was 
shot dead. (Life of Charles XII, 1 733.) 

Subsequently, at the passage of the Duna and defeat of 
the Saxons, there was, says Voltaire, a young Scottish 
volunteer who was master of German, and offered himself 
as a means to discover the intentions of the Emperor of 
Russia and the King of Poland. "He applied to the 
colonel of the regiment of Saxon horse, which served as 
guards to the Czar during their interview, and passed for 
a cavalier of Brandenburg, his address and well-placed 
sums having easily procured him a lieutenancy in the regi- 
ment. When he came to Birsen (sic) he artfully insinuated 
himself into the friendship of the secretaries of the 
ministers, and was made a party in all their amusements ; 
and whether it was that he took advantage of their indis- 
cretion over a bottle, or that he gained them by presents, 
he secretly drew from them all the secrets of their masters, 
and he hastened to give an account of them to Charles 

His information eventually led to the successful passage 
of the river by the latter, and the subsequent conquest of 
Courland and Lithuania. 

At Pultowa, in 1709, among the prisoners taken by the 
Muscovites were several Scottish officers ; among them the 


unfortunate Major Malcolm Sinclair, whom they basely 
sent to Siberia for thirteen years, and General Count Ham- 
ilton, who had commanded a column at the battle of Narva 
in 1700. 

In 1723, Salmon, in his Chronology, notes the death at 
Stockholm of "Hugo Hamilton Esq., of Scotland, general 
of artillery to the King of Sweden." He was in his 70th 
year, and had entered the service as a lieutenant. 

Few events created a greater sensation in Sweden than 
the tragic fate of Major Malcolm Sinclair in 1739. One 
of the most favourite officers of King Frederick, he was 
basely assassinated by Russia on his way to Constanti- 
nople with important despatches with reference to a treaty 
between Sweden and the Porte. In his memoirs Baron 
Manstein relates the matter thus : 

" Bestucheff, who resided at Stockholm in quality of the 
minister of Russia, gave advice to his court that Major 
Sinclair had been sent to Constantinople, whence he was 
to bring back the ratification of this treaty. Upon this 
news Count Munich, by order of the cabinet, sent certain 
officers, accompanied by some subalterns, into Poland with 
orders to disperse themselves in different places and try 
to carry off Sinclair, take away all his letters and de- 
spatches, and kill him in case of resistance. These officers, 
as they could not be everywhere, employed some Jews and 
some of the poor Polish gentlemen to get information of 
the arrival of Sinclair ; thus he had warning from the 
governor of Chockzine (in Bessarabia) to take care of him- 
self, as there were lying in wait for him several Russian 
officers, particularly at Lemberg, by way of which he pro- 


posed to pass. Upon this Sinclair changed his route, and 
the Bashaw of Chockzine gave him an escort to Broda, 
where the crown-general of Poland gave him another, 
with which he entered Silesia. There he thought himself 
safe, but, being obliged to stop a few days at Breslau, the 
Russian officers, who learned by spies the road he had 
taken, pursued and overtook him within a mile of Nieu- 
stadt. There they stopped and disarmed him, and, having 
carried him some miles further, assassinated him in a wood. 
After this ignoble stroke they took away his clothes and 
papers, in which,' however, nothing of consequence was 

The infamous Russian court, having examined the de- 
spatches, coolly sent them, via Hamburg, to that/>f Sweden. 
Then the excitement became great. At Stockholm the 
population rose and wrecked the houses of Catherine's 
ambassador, crying out " that they were inspired by the 
soul of Sinclair." The remains of the latter were placed in 
a magnificent tomb, inscribed thus, by order of King 
Frederick : 

" Here lies Major Malcolm Sinclair, a good and faithful 
subject of the kingdom of Sweden, born in 1691, son of 
the worthy Major-General Sinclair and Madame Hamilton. 
Prisoner of war in Siberia from 1709 to 1722. Charged 
with affairs of State, he was assassinated at Naumberg, in 
Silesia, 17th June, 1739. 

" Reader ! drop some tears upon this tomb, and consider 
with thyself how incomprehensible are the destinies of poor 
mortals." (Scots Mag., 1740.) 


In 1759 Colonel Ramsay commanded the Swedish garri- 
son of Abo. 

In the Seven Years' War great progress was made in 
1758 by the Swedish army in Pomerania, under the com- 
mand of Count Hamilton, who recovered, by force of arms,, 
all Swedish Pomerania, and even made hot incursions into 
the Prussian territories ; thus Frederick the Great advanced 
against him in person at the head of 10,000 men from 
Berlin, while the Prince of Bevern menaced him with 5,000 
men from another quarter. In a conflict at Forhellia the 
Swedes were compelled to retreat and quit Prussian 
ground. Retiring by the way of Stralsund, Count Hamilton, 
" either disgusted by the restrictions he had been laid 
under," says Smollett, ".or finding himself unable to act in 
such a manner as might redound to the advantage of his. 
reputation, threw up his command, retired from the army, 
and resigned all his other employments." (Hist, of England^ 
vol. vi.) General Lantinghausen succeeded him. 

We presume this is the same officer, Count Gustavus 
David Hamilton, field-marshal of Sweden, who died in 
his 90th year at Stockholm, in 1789, and who is recorded 
in the Edinburgh Advertiser for that year as having entered 
the Swedish army in 1716, and having fought in several 
battles under different powers. 

In 1776 General Ramsay (the same officer who com- 
manded at Abo), by his simple presence of mind, compelled 
the regiment of Upland, then in a mutinous state of revolt, 
to take the oath of fidelity to the king, Gustavus III. 
(Tooke's Catherine II.) 

Few names have a more honourable place in Sweden 


during the middle of the last century than that of Count 
Croruartie, knight commander of the Tower and Sword. 
He was Lord Macleod, who had been "out in the '45, ' r 
and, after being in the Tower of London, entered the 
Swedish service, where he rose to the rank of lieutenant- 
general. Returning in 1777, he raised the old 73rd 
Highlanders, latterly known as the equally gallant 71st 
Highland Light Infantry. He died at Edinburgh in 1789,, 
a major-general in the British service. 

So lately as 1857 we find Count Hamilton, marshal of 
the kingdom of Sweden, and president ex-officio of the 
Assemblies of the Four Orders. 


The Ancient Alliance The Scots under St. Louis The Archer 
Guard The Malondrina Embassies Earl of Buchan's 
Troops The Battle of Bouge Buchan, Constable of 

THE long alliance and friendly intercourse between the 
kingdoms of Scotland and France forms one of the most 
interesting pictures in the national annals of the former, 
but dates in reality from the third year of the reign of 
William the Lion, though tradition and, in some instances, 
history take back the alliance to a remoter period, even to 
the days of Charlemagne ; and, if we are to believe Boethius 
and Buchanan, the double tressure in our royal arms, 
counter fleur-de-lysed or, armed azure, was first assumed 
by King Acinus, as the founder of the league. But this 
~bordure could not have been put round the lion rampant, 
as that gallant symbol was first adopted by King William 
(according to Anderson's Diplomata) while heraldry and 
its laws were unknown in the ninth century. 

Following tradition, first we may note that De Mezeray, 
in his Histoire de France, records that in 790 " began the 
indissoluble alliance between France and Scotland, Charle- 
magne having sent 4,000 men to the aid of King Achius, 
who sent in return two learned Soots, Clement and Alain," 


in whom originated the University of Paris. Next, Bishop 
Lesly states that so far back as 882 Charles III had twenty- 
four armed Scots, in whose fidelity and valour he reposed 
confidence, to attend his person the first of the Scottish 
guard. Strange to say, Eginhardus, the secretary of 
Charlemagne, gives an account of the assistance the Scots 
gave that monarch in his wars; and Paulus ^milius 
and Bellefoustus follow suit the latter adding: " Scotorum 
fideli opera non parum adjutas in bello Hispanico fuerat"\ 
while the prelate before quoted states that the King of 
Scotland sent 4,000 warriors under his brother William to 
assist Charles in his contest in Italy. 

Following all this perhaps led Ariosto to enumerate 
among their alleged auxiliaries the Earls of Errol and 
Buchan, the Chief of the Forbesses, and a Duke of Mar ! 
(Orlando Fiirioso, conte x.) 

In 1168 we come to more solid ground the first 
authentic negotiation between Scotland and France when 
William the Lion sent ambassadors to Louis the Young, to 
form an alliance against England. (Hailes' Annals.) It was 
renewed repeatedly, particularly in 1326 by Robert I, at 
Corbeil ; in 1383 and 1390, during the reign of Robert II, 
when the ambassadors of Charles VI were royally enter- 
tained in the castle of Edinburgh ; and at various intervals 
down to the reign of Mary and Francis. 

In 1254, it is stated that the life of King Louis IX 
was twice preserved once in France, and afterwards at 
Danicotta, in Egypt, in 1270, during the Holy War by 
his faithful and valiant Scots sent to serve him by Alex- 
ander III. On this occasion the three commanders were 


Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, Walter Stuart of Dun- 
donald, and David Lindsay of Glenesk. This led to an 
increase in the number of Scots attending the King of 
France to 100 men, constituting them a garde du corps 
(L'Escosse Fran<;aise, par A. Houston). " The practice of 
having armed Scots attendants appears to have been con- 
tinued by the succeeding sovereigns of France, and 
Charles V is stated to have placed this corps on a regular 
establishment," says the War Office record of the 1st Royal 
Scots, which corps is alleged to represent the Archer Guard 
of immortal memory. 

" The Garde Escossaise," says Abercrombie, writing in 
1711, "still enjoys, preferable to all those that ever did 
service in France, place and precedence. For example, 
the captain of the Scots guards is, by way of excellency, 
designed first captain of his Majesty's guards. He begins 
to attend on the first day of the year, and serves the first 
quarter. . . . When the king is crowned or anointed 
the captain of the Scots guards stands by him, and when 
the ceremony is performed takes the royal robe as his due. 
When the keys of a town or fortress are delivered up to 
the king he returns them that minute to the captain of the 
Scots guards. Twenty-five of this guard wear always, in 
testimony of their unspotted fidelity, white coats overlaid 
with silver lace ; and six of these, in turns, stand next the 
king's person at all times and seasons in the palace, the 
church, in parliament, the courts of justice, and the recep- 
tion of foreign ambassadors. It is the right of twenty-five 
of these gentlemen to carry the corpse of the deceased 
king to the royal sepulchre at St. Denis. To be short, 


that troop of guards has, ever since the days of St. Louis, 
been in possession of all the honour and confidence the 
Kings of France can bestow upon their best friends and 
assured trustees ; and it would look very strange in that 
country if they should see the braves et fiers Escossois (for 
so they characterise the nation) sit down contented with 
the sinister" (Mart. Atch., vol. i.) 

Among the guard in 1270 this author further gives the 
names of the Earls of Carrick and Athole, John Stewart, 
Alexander Cumin, Robert Keith, William Gordon, George 
Durward, and John Quincy ; and many of the Scots, 
including Adam Kilconcath, the Earl of Carrick, died of 
the plague on the coast of Africa, before Tunis. (Martin's 

According to the memoirs of Philip de Commines, Louis IX 
had the Scots guard with him, " and very few besides," 
when in the war against the Count de Charolois he marched 
to the capture of Rouen ; and again in the desperate sally 
at Liege the life of the king was saved by the Scots, " who 
behaved well, kept firm their ground, and shot their arrows 
freely, killing more of the Burgundians than the enemy." 

In 1385 the Scots College at Paris was founded by 
David, Bishop of Moray, consecrated in 1290. It was 
built in the most ancient part of Paris, the Rue des Fosses 
St. Victor, as recorded on a brass plate in the chapel. On 
this plate were also the arms of the bishop and of the 
archbishop of Glasgow in 1588, and therein in later years 
were monuments to James VII and the Duke of Perth, 
the governor of his son and heir. That of the king was 
executed by Louis Gamier in 1703. 


Of this college George Grout was rector in 1499, and 
John Grout rector in 1550 (Rec. Scots Coll.), and the cele- 
brated Thomas Innes, who succeeded his brother Louis in 
that office, and died in 1744. The college was rebuilt by 
Robert Barclay in 1665. 

The charters and historical documents prized here, above 
400 in number, were of vast interest, but were all lost at 
the Revolution, when the body of the king was torn out of 
his coffin, " where he lay folded in black silk velvet," at 
the Benedictines, and flung into a lime pit. {Scots Coll. 
MSS., 4to.) On the final demolition its funds were sunk 
in those of the Scots College at Douay. 

In the chapel dedicated to St. Andrew were interred the 
viscera of Louisa Maria, daughter of King James ; the 
heart of Mary Duchess of Perth ; the viscera of James 
and Frances Jennings, Duchess of Tyrconnel, both of which 
were found so lately as 1883 in two leaden cases, and placed 
in the hands of Monsignor Rogerson, administrator of 
Scottish endowments. 

In 1354, when the Black Prince won the battle of 
Poitiers over the French, he found in the field against him 
3,000 Scottish auxiliaries, led by William Earl of Douglas 
(a veteran of the battles of Durham and Halidonhill), who 
fought with remarkable bravery, was severely wounded, 
and narrowly escaped being taken prisoner with John 
King of France. (Fordun.) In this expedition he was 
accompanied by Sir William Baird of Evandale, who " with 
his family had been long in use to join the Douglases on 
every occasion." (Surname of Baird.} 

In those days a set of freebooters, the result of the 


English invasions, infested Trance. They consisted chiefly 
of men who had been soldiers, and, forming themselves into 
bands or free companies, they pillaged on every hand 
and slew all who opposed them, destroying buildings, and 
paying no regard to Church or State, according to the 
Abbe de Choisi. Their chief leaders were the Chevalier de 
Vert of Anxerre, Hugues de Varennes, and one formidable 
adventurer, Robert the Scot, and they posted themselves 
in such places that attack was almost impossible. 

These Malondrins, as they were named, chose their own 
leaders, observed discipline, and in the latter none was 
more exacting than Robert the Scot (Hist, de Charles V, 
Diet. Militaire, etc.). The English tolerated them as a 
species of allies, till Bertrand du Guesclin cleared the 
country of them and led them into Spain, ostensibly to fight 
the Moors, but in reality to crush Peter the Cruel . 

In 1370 Charles V was still on the throne of France, 
and in that year there came to him three Scottish 
ambassadors, one of whom was Sir John Edmonstone 
of that ilk in Lothian, sent by David II to solicit the 
interposition of the Sacred College to procure a favour- 
able decree in the suit prosecuted at the instance of 
Margaret Logie of Logie, queen-consort of Scotland, and 
in the following year it was specially stipulated that, " in 
case of a competition for the Scottish crown> the King of 
France should withstand any English influence and support 
the determination of the States of Scotland." (Pinkerton.) 

By a treaty signed at Paris in August, 1383, the King of 
France engaged, when war began between Scotland and 
England, to send to the former 1,000 men at arms, with 


1,000 suits of fine armour for Scottish gentlemen ; but in 
this, as in many other instances, France proved false. 

Under Charles VI and part of the reign of Charles VII 
Robert Patullo (or Pittillock), a native of Dundee, is stated 
to have been captain of the Scots guards, and to have 
distinguished himself, particularly during the expulsion of 
the English from Grascony. Prior to this, Henry V of 
England, having won the memorable battle of Agincourt in 
1415, and captured many of the principal towns in France, 
was actually acknowledged as heir to the throne by Charles 
VI, on which the Scots guard quitted his court in disgust, 
,nd marched to take part with the dauphin (afterwards 
Charles VII) in his resistance to this new arrangement, 
which would have deprived him of the succession to the 
throne. This brings us to the period referred to by 
Buchanan in his famous " Epithalamium" on the marriage 
of Francis of France and Mary of Scotland : 

" When all the nations at one solemn call 
Had sworn to whelm the dynasty of Gaul, 
In that sad hour her liberty and laws 
Had perished had not Scotland join'd her cause 
No glorious fight her chieftains ever wan 
"Where Scotland flamed not foremost in the van. 
Unless the Scots had bled, she ne'er had grown 
To power, or seen her warlike foes o'erthrown. 
Alone this nation Gallia's fortunes bore, 
Her varied hazards in the war's uproar ; 
And often turned herself against the lance, 
Destined to crush the rising power of France." 

The fortunes of the latter were at the lowest ebb when 
Scotland sent her succour. 

After the assembling of Parliament in 1420, it was re- 
solved to send a force of auxiliaries to France, under Sir 


John Stuart of Coul, created Earl of Buchan, youngest son 
of Robert Duke of Albany, by Muriel Keith, of the house 
of Marischal, born sixty-six years after Bannockburn. 
These auxiliaries are stated by Buchanan at 7,000 men, by 
Balfour at 10,000, and were conveyed from Scotland by 
the fleet of Juan II of Castile from the west coast to 
France, where they landed at Rochelle, after a prosperous 
voyage. The following were some of the leaders in this 
expedition under the gallant Buchan : 

Sir Archibald Douglas, Earl of Wigton, afterwards Lord 
of Longueville and marshal of France; Sir John Stewart 
of Darnley, constable of the troops, afterwards slain at 
Orleans in 1429 ; Sir Robert Maxwell of Calderwood, who 
died of his wounds at Chinon ; Sir Robert Stewart of 
Railston ; Sir William Crawford of Crawfordland, killed at 
the siege of Clonell in 1424 ; Sir Alexander Macauslon of 
the Lennox ; Sir John Carmichael of that ilk ; Sir John 
Swinton of that ilk, slain at Yerneuil with Sir Alexander 
Buchanan of that ilk ; Sir Hew Kennedy of Ardstinchar ; 
Sir Robert Houston ; Sir Henry Cunningham, third son of 
Kilmaurs ; and Sir Alexander Stewart, great-grandson of 
Walter, the Lord High Steward. 

It is stated (in Dalomoth's Arms, 1803) that in the 
presence of Charles VI Sir Alexander encountered a lion 
with his sword, which broke in the conflict, after which he 
slew it by a branch torn from a tree. To commemorate 
this the king augmented his arms by a " lion debruised, 
with a ragged staff in bend" a story doubted in the English 

All the knights and men-at-arms were accoutred and 



armed according to the Scots Acts of Parliament, vol. ii, 
and were under the regulations for the Scottish troops in 
the early part of the fifteenth century. By them pillage 
was forbidden under pain of death which was also the 
punishment for any soldier who killed a comrade. " Any 
soldier striking a gentleman was to lose his ears, any 
gentleman defying another was to he put under arrest. If 
knights rioted they were to be deprived of their horses and 
armour; whoever unhorsed an Englishman was to have 
half his ransom, and every Scottish soldier was to have a 
white St. Andrew's Cross on his back and breast, which, if 
his surcoat was white, was to be broidered on a square or a 
circle of black cloth." 

From Rochelle, Buchan marched his forces instantly to 
the aid of the dauphin, who was then endeavouring to 
rescue Languedoc, and by courier informed the earl that 
he had been deluded by the pretended reconciliation with 
the Duke of Burgundy at Pouilly-le-Fort ; so to the former 
and his Scots was assigned the town and castle of Chatillon 
in Touraine, where they soon came to blows with the 
English and Burgundians ; and there, in one of their first 
encounters, Sir Robert Maxwell was mortally wounded in 
1420, and was interred in the church of the Friars Minors 
at Black Angers, after bequeathing his coat-of-mail to John 
Maxwell his page. (Ilist. of the Maxwells.) 

Before the arrival of Buchan, Walsingham and others 
record that a Scottish garrison in Fresnoi-le-Vicomte made 
a desperate resistance to the army of Henry of England, 
under Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig, and the first of 
his house. In one sally 100 Scots were slain and the 


banner of Douglas taken. By Henry's orders it was hung 
as a trophy in the church of Notre-Dame de Rouen. The 
Scots defended themselves for eighteen months, till their 
countrymen landed at Rochelle, which exasperated the 
King of England so much that in all treaties made by the 
Burgundians he declined to allow the Scots to be compre- 
hended. Drumlanrig was afterwards killed in France in 
1427. So barbarous was the King of England that he 
murdered in cold blood 30 Scottish men-at-arms whom he 
captured in the town of Meaux, on the Marne. 

While to Tannequi de Chatel and other gallant Trench 
leaders was assigned the command of the French troops 
in Tours, to Buchan and his Scots was entrusted now the 
protection of the province of Anjou. 

Of the English armies of those days we find but a sorry 
account in Brady's History and Dugdale's Baronage, etc., 
so far as pay went. From them, Hume (vol. iii) concludes 
that the numerous armies mentioned in these wars " con- 
sisted chiefly of ragamuffins who followed the corps and 
lived by plunder. Edward's army before Calais consisted 
of 30,094 men ; yet its pay for sixteen months was only 
127,201." Hence the savage outrages committed by such 
troops in Scotland and France. 

Thomas Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of 
England, who had recently been appointed governor of 
Normandy, was joined by Sir Thomas Freeport and two 
captains of Portuguese free lances 011 Easter Eve, 1421, 
after which he marched the English army towards Anjou 
to encounter the allied Scots under Buchan, and the 
Dauphin ois under Marechal de la Fayette, the Vicomte de 



Narbonne, and other leaders of high valour (Monstrelet's 

On the afternoon of the 22nd March he learned from 
certain Scottish foragers that the Earl of Buchan's force 
was encamped at Bouge, a little town tweuty-twc miles 
eastward of Angers. 

"They are ours !" exclaimed Clarence, as he accoutred, 
" but let none follow me save the men-at-arms." 

With the latter he set forth, " besides his gallant furni- 
ture and armour," says Buchanan, " wearing a royal diadem 
set with many jewels," leaving the Earl of Salisbury to follow 
with the archers and 4,000 infantry. 

The Scots and Dauphinois held the ancient bridge of the 
Couanar, which was deep, narrow, and rapid at that poii.t, 
and was the only means by which the adverse hosts could 
meet each other ; and Clarence, we are told, was filled with 
fury to find that its passage was to be disputed by the Scots, 
and may perhaps have remembered the old English saying 
(introduced by Shakespeare in his Henry V] : 

" If that you would France win, 
Then with Scotland first begin." 

Sir John Stewart of Darnley and the Sieur de la Fon- 
taine, who had been scouting with some cavalry, on seeing 
the advancing English fell back to report. " To your arms !" 
was the order of Buchan, who drew up the combined troops 
in front of the town. 

Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, had orders to cross the 
stream by a ford and take the Scots in flank if he could, 
while Clarence with his men-at-arms, in their panoply of 
steel, was to assail the bridge in front. Its defence was 


entrusted to Sir Robert Stewart of Railston, with thirty 
archers only ; but, just as the skirmish began, Kennedy of 
Ardstinchar, who with a hundred Scots held a church 
close by, in their hurry but half-armed, rushed forth, and 
by a shower of arrows drove the English back. Then 
Buchan pressed on at the head of 200 chosen Scottish men- 
at-arms, and in the narrow way between the parapets of 
the old bridge there ensued a close and dreadful melee, when, 
fired by the memories of a hundred years' war, the Scots 
and the English met in the shock of battle, as they alone 
could meet each other. The latter, says Buchanan, were 
exasperated to " be attacked by such implacable enemies, 
not only at home, but beyond the seas ; so they fought 
stoutly, buu none more so than Clarence himself, who was 
too well known by his armour." 

On the other hand, the royal earl, a powerful warrior in 
his forty-second year, fought with all the heroism of his 
race; but Clarence, distinguished by his fatal coronet, was 
the mark of every Scottish sword and lance. 

In the close melee he was quickly assailed by Sir John 
Oarmichael (ancestor of the Earl of Hyndford), who spurred 
against him with lance in rest ; the tough oak shaft was 
splintered on the corslet of Clarence, who was wounded 
in the face by Sir John Swinton of that ilk, and, just as he 
was falling from his saddle, had his brains dashed out by 
one blow from the Earl of Buchan's mace " a steel ham- 
mer," Hume of Godscroffc calls it, a weapon to which he 
had resorted after driving his lance through the prince's 

His fall filled the English M ith blind fury. In crowds 


they pressed over the heaps of dead on the bridge to avenge 
him knights, archers, and billmen intermingled, but 
jostling and impeding each other in such a manner that 
the Scots, by one furious charge, with helmets closed and 
lances in rest, drove them back, put them to flight, and 
cut them to pieces, the pursuit and flight being continued 
till night fell, with bridles loose, the victors scarcely pausing 
even to wipe their bloody blades upon their horses' manes. 
According to Bower, 1,700 English perished, while the 
Scots lost only two and the French twelve a statement 
utterly incredible. The Chronicle of Monstrelet states that 
of the English there fell 3,000, and of the Dauphinois 
11,000, including three good knights, Charles le Bouteiller, 
Gavin des Fontaines, and Sir John Grosin. 

Among the English there fell the Lords of Tankerville 
and De Roos of Hamloke, Sir John Grey of Heton, and 
Gilbert de Umphreville, titular Earl of Angus in Scotland. 
Two hundred knights and men-at arms, with their battle- 
chargers and rich armour, fell into the hands of the Scots. 
Among the first were Henry Earl of Huntingdon, son 
of the half-sister of Richard II; and John, Earl of 
Somerset, whose sister Jane was afterwards queen of 
James I. 

Buchan sent the body of Clarence to the Earl of Salis- 
bury, and it was eventually interred in Canterbury Cathe- 
dral ; but his coronet remained a trophy with the Scots. 
Sir John Stewart of Darnley purchased it from one of his 
soldiers for 1,000 angels ; Sir Robert Houston afterwards 
lent him 5,000 upon it. Buchanan asserts that it was 
Macauslon from the Lennox who rent it from the duke's 


helmet. Sir John Carmichael, in memory of shivering his 
spear on the duke's corslet, added to his armorial coat a 
hand grasping a broken spear ; but the honour of unhorsing 
him was claimed by Swinton and Sir Alexander Buchanan. 
To Hugh Kennedy, Charles VII of France gave, as an 
addition to his arms, azure, three fleurs-de-lys or, still borne 
by all his descendants. 

On the Earl of Buchan was bestowed the office of Con- 
stable of France, last held by Charles of Lorraine the 
first stranger who ever held such an honour and with it 
he got princely domains, stretching over all the land between 
Chartres and Avranches. He was also made master of the 

After his victory he took possession of the castle of 
Chartres, on the Eure, and laid siege to the old fortress of 
Alengon (of which three battlemented towers yet remain), 
repulsing with the loss of 400 men the Earl of Salisbury, 
who attempted its relief. He then captured the town of 
Avranches, in Normandy, in the autumn of 1422, after 
which he returned to Scotland, in consequence of feuds 
which had broken out there, leaving his troops under the 
command of Sir John Stewart of Darnley, who was styled 
" Constable of the Scots in France." 

Charles VI died on the 21st of October that year, and 
the Duke of Bedford, whose name was disgraced by his 
persecution of the Maid of Orleans, ordered Henry VI to 
be proclaimed King of France, while the dauphin, to whom 
Scotland adhered, was called in mockery "the King 
Bourges," as the English and Burgundians had all the 


best provinces of France, including Normandy, and the 
territory between the Loire and Schelat. 

The Scots guards, of whom Darnley was now captain, 
were with Charles VII at the castle of Espailly, in 
Auvergne ; and it is about this time that we first find 
the French mode of spelling the name of the Scottish royal 

In the Liste des Commandeurs des Gendarmes Escossais, 
etc (Pere Daniel), under date 24th March, 1442, is Jean 
Stuart, Seigneur d'Arnelay et d'Aubigne. 

''Jean Stuart, fils du precedant, Seigneur d'Anbigne'. 

" Robert Stuart, cousin du precedant, Seigneur d'Aubigne, 
fait Marechal de France en 1515." 

To Charles VII all the princes of the blood and the best 
chivalry of France adhered, and his affairs were beginning 
to prosper, when there came to the castle of Espailly bad 
tidinjjs of his Scottish auxiliaries at Crevant. 


The Battle of Crevant The Battle of Verneuil The Battle 
of Roverai Margaret of Scotland The Conflict of Mont- 
Ihery The Scots in Naples. 

IN the July of 1423 King Charles ordered a body of his 
allied French and Scottish forces to cross the Loire and 
invest the town of Crevant, then held by the enemy. It 
is in the district of Auxerre, and the river Yonne lay 
between the relieving force and the English and Bur- 
gundians, who were about 15,000 strong, drawn up in 
order of battle on a hill, with Crevant in their rear, the 
stream in front, with a stone bridge by which it was 

The weather was so sultry that the attacking force 
suffered greatly on their march by the heat and the 
weight of their armour ; thus many of the Scots men- 
at-arms proceeded on foot, leading their horses by the 
bridle. They were led by Sir John of Darnley ; the 
French by the Marechal de Senerac. The armour of 
the Scottish and French men-at-arms at this period 
differed somewhat from that of the English. They 
wore back and breast-plates, attached to which were various 
plates adapted to overlap the figure ; and over the flanks 
on each side the soldier wore taces or plates attached to a 


small shield, covering the front of the thigh ; and these 
taces were square, lozenge- shaped, or serrated, according 
to fancy. Gauntlets of steel were then recent French in- 
ventions, superseding long gloves of thick leather. 

By the express orders of the Duchess of Burgundy, then 
at Dijon, the town was to be saved from the Scots particu- 
larly, whereupon the Marshal of Burgundy joined his 
forces to those of Salisbury, with whom were the Earl 
of Suffolk, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, and other heroes of 

After solemn mass in Auxerre, and drinking a loving-cup 
together, 120 English and Burgundian horse, with as many 
archers, came boldly forward as scouts, as the old governor 
of Cambrai records, about 10 A.M. on a Saturday. 

Under Darnley's orders were only 3,000 Scots and a few 
French, under Marechal le Comte de Senerac, the Lords 
of Estissac and Ventadour. According to Monstreleb and 
others, with all their troops in glittering array, he and the 
other three leaders sat placidly in their saddles and saw the 
English and Burgundians cross the bridge of the Yonne and 
form in squares of foot and squadrons of horse when they 
ought to have held that bridge with cannon and cross-bow, 
forgetting the most simple rules of war ; and terrible was 
the sequel ! 

The French, who had been demoralised since Agincourt, 
fell back under Senerac, leaving the whole brunt of battle 
to the Scots a handful compared to the opposing force, 
which quickly overlapped them on both flanks, while a 
sortie from Crevant assailed their rear. Though fighting 
with their hereditary valour with spear, maul, and sword, 


the Scots fell into disorder. Desperately fought Stewart in 
the van to repair his first error, but lost an eye by a sword- 
thrust through the bars of his visor, after which, blinded 
with blood, he surrendered himself to a Burgundian lord, 
Claude de Bevasir of Castillux ; and there, too, was taken 
Sir William Crawford of Crawfordland, who remained a 
prisoner till the following year, but afterwards fell ia 
France. De Ventadour also lost an eye and yielded him- 
self to the Lord of Gamaches. 

Of the Scots there fell 1,200, and among them, Monstrelet 
enumerates, a nephew of the absent Earl of Buchan ; Sir 
William Hamilton and his son ; Sir Thomas Swinton ; 
Stephen and John Frasmeres (Ferrier ?) ; while 400 Scots 
were made prisoners. In the wars of those days one suc- 
cessful campaign, with pay and plunder, with the ransom 
of a few prisoners, was supposed to be a small fortune to 
an English soldier. (Dugdale's Baronage?) 

Solemn thanksgiving was offered up by the victors in the 
churches of Crevant, and the first-fruits of it were the 
capture of two other towns on the Loire. 

Sir John of Darnley was afterwards exchanged for the 
Lord Pole, brother of the Earl of Suffolk. He was made 
Lord of Aubigne, Concressault, and Evereux, with the right 
of quartering his arms with those of France. He arranged 
the marriage of the Princess Margaret of Scotland with 
the future, and infamous, Louis XI, and fell in his old age 
at the siege of Orleans in 1429. 

ihe tidings of Crevant urged the return of the Constable 
Bnchan to France from Scotland, whither came as envoys 
Rones of Chartres, chancellor of the former, and Juvenal 


des Ursins, Archbishop of Rheims, a celebrated prelate and 
historian ; so another auxiliary force was equipped to take 
vengeance for the late defeat. 

The Earl of Douglas the same who lost an eye at 
Homildon, who fought at Shrewsbury, and defended the 
castle of Edinburgh in 1409 on being created Duke of 
Lorraine and Marshal of France, joined the constable 
with a body of horse and infantry. Hollinshed gives the 
new auxiliary force at 10,000 men. Among the leaders 
were Sir Alexander Home of that ilk ; and Douglas, an 
aged Border-warrior who fought at Homildon ; Adam 
Douglas, afterwards governor of Tours ; Robert Hop- 
Pringle, the Laird of Smailholm, armour-bearer to the 
Earl of Douglas ; two other Douglases of the lines of 
Queenbury and Lochleven ; and Bernard Lindsay of the 
house of Glenesk. 

In the spring of 1424 these forces landed at Rochelle 
and joined the other Scottish troops then in Poitou under 
Charles VII. 

It is related by Godscroft that the aged Home of that 
ilk had resolved to send a younger kinsman m his place, 
but when he saw the Scottish troops departing his military 
spirit fired up anew. 

"Ah, Sir Alexander," said the Earl of Douglas, " who 
would have thought that we should ever part ?" 

" Nor shall we now, my lord !" exclaimed the old knight ; 
so he sailed with Douglas, and died in his armour on the 
field of Verneuil. 

At this time the Duke of Bedford was besieging Ivri-la- 
Bataille, a Norman town, against the valiant Girault de la 


Palliere, who had agreed in his sore extremity to surrender, 
if not relieved by a certain day ; BO Charles marched to 
its relief with 9,000 Scots, under Buchan, Douglas, and 
Murray, according to Monstrelet, and the same number of 
French, under Yentadour, Narbonne, and de Tonnere ; 
Buchan, as constable, commanding the whole, in conjunc- 
tion with the Duke of Alencon. 

Bedford led 26,000 men-at-arms and archers under 
Salisbury, Suffolk, and Willoughby ; and when this reliev- 
ing force came in sight of Ivri, St. George's Cross was 
already flying on its walls, which still exist, together with 
a strong old tower into which the English garrison retired 
on the approach of Charles VII. When the force of the 
latter came in sight of Verneuil, " the Earl of Buchan," 
says Rapin, " was pleased to resign (the command) to the 
Earl of Douglas, his father-in-law, to whom the king sent 
for that purpose a patent constituting him lieutenant- 
general of the whole kingdom, otherwise the constable 
could not have acted under his orders." This was on the 
17th August, 1424 

Bedford, whom Douglas was wont to ridicule as " John 
with the leaden sword," resolved to wait the attack, and 
selected excellent ground, flanked by a hill on which he 
posted 2,000 archers with their protecting stakes ; while 
Douglas drew up in order of battle before Verneuil, then a 
towu of great strength, the ancient walls of which still 

To the constable with his suite he assigned the centre ; 
the wings he gave to Viscount Narbonne and Gilbert the 
Marechal de la Fayette. 


Each flank was covered by a thousand mounted gendar- 
merie, in complete mail, horse and man, with bow, mace, 
and battle-axe ; and with the left flank were 000 Lombardy 
cross-bowmen, sent by the Duke of Milan, mounted and in 
full armour. 

Douglas held a council of war, before which he urged 
" that as the Duke of Bedford intended evidently to fight 
on strong ground, chosen by himself, battle should not be 
risked." But the French leaders, already jealous of the 
Scots, declared that "if battle were avoided the honour 
of France would suffer." Then the Viscount Narbonne 
ordered his bowmen to advance, and, in deflance of all 
authority, began his march towards the English. Pere 
Daniel and Hall record that " Douglas was infuriated by 
this disobedience ; but that neither he nor the constable 
could avert the purpose of these rash French lords. 
Douglas was in a foreign land, and, afraid that his honour 
might suffer if the field was lost by only half his troops 
engaging, he issued orders for the whole to advance uphill 
and attack the English." 

This was at three o'clock in the afternoon, and then began 
a conflict, of which every account is confused, but on the 
issue of which the fate of France and her king seemed to 

The English received the uphill charge of the Scots 
with a shout so hearty that it dismayed the French under 
Narbonne, who held back his column, leaving his allies to 
bear the brunt of all. Close, deadly, and terrible was the 
conflict, the Scots handling their long spears and heavy 
swords in close battle, choosing to die rather than surren- 


der or give way. The French authorities admit that " the 
bravest leaders and most efficient troops who fought on 
their side that day were the Scots." 

Yet it was a lost battle, and, choosing rather to die than 
surrender it, there fell the Constable Buchan ; his father-in- 
law, the Earl of Douglas ; two Sir James Douglases, Sir 
Walter Lindsay, Sir Alexander Home, Sir John Swinton 
of that ilk, Sir Robert Stewart, and Hop-Pringle of 
Smailholm, with many French knights and great lords of 
Dauphiny and Languedoc, with 4,000 men, the most of 
whom were Scots and Italians. Hollinshed gives the slain 
at 9,700 of these, and 2,100 English. Many of the 
Italians had the hardihood to revisit the field, perhaps in 
search of plunder, but were shot down in the twilight and 
stripped of arms and clothing by the English archers. 

Covered with wounds, the bodies of the Earls of Buchan 
and Douglas were borne from the field, and honourably in- 
terred by the English in the church of St. Gnetian, at 
Tours, where, and at Orleans, so lately as 1043, a daily 
mass was celebrated for the souls of the Scots who fell at 

Bnchan was succeeded as constable of France by 
Arthur, Due de Bretagne, and left one daughter, who was 
married to George Lord Seton. 

The power of Bedford grew weaker in France after the 
battle of Verneuil, where more men fell on both sides than 
in any battle since Agincourt. Subsidies came grudgingly 
from London to aid the iniquitous war, and then Joan of 
Arc came upon the scene when Charles VII was contem- 
plating a flight to Scotland. In 1428 Bedford was orderei 


to cross the Loire and ravage those provinces which still 
adhered to the former, and, as a preparatory step, besieged 
Orleans, on which the eyes of all Europe were turned, for 
the numberless deeds of valour performed around the city. 
Cannon were extensively used, and by one of them the 
Earl of Salisbury was slain. 

The siege had lasted four months, and, as the season was 
Lent, Bedford sent from Paris a vast quantity of salted 
herrings and other stores in SCO carts, with a train of 
artillery and 1,700 men, under Sir John Fastolffe, one of 
England's best generals, made Knight of the Garter by 
Henry VI. Under his orders were Sir Thomas Rampston 
and Sir Philip Hall, " with 1,000 followers," probably some 
of the unpaid " ragamuffins" referred to by Brady. 

To cut off this force Charles VII despatched the Count 
of Clermont with 3,000 men, including the cuirassiers and 
archers of the Scottish guard under John Stewart, Count 
d'Aubigne, and the lancers of the Count Dunois. The 
glitter of their brilliant armour warned Fastolffe of their 
approach at seven in the morning of the 12th February, 
1429. He made a barricade ("lager" it would now be 
called) of the herring waggons and carts, and posted his 
men in the rear thereof. 

The French and Scottish men-at-arms dismounted and 
assailed the entrenchment with sword and battle-axe, while 
the archers plied their arrows; but the movement was 
begun too furiously by the Scots, in their rancorous hate of 
the English and desire to avenge the day of Verneuil, though 
Clermont and Dunois had placed some guns in position 
which would soon have knocked the vehicles to pieces. 


By lance, bill, and bow they were repulsed, and then 
Fastolffe, ordering some of the waggons to be withdrawn, 
issued forth and charged them furiously. Short and sharp 
was the conflict ; but the Scots were routed and the 
French cannon taken. Stewart of Darnley and one of his 
sons were slain. Dunois was wounded, and, according to 
Monstrelet, there fell six-score great lords and 500 soldiers. 

The conflict of Roverai was deemed of great importance 
in its time, as the convoy contained so much that was 
necessary for the English in Lent. "The Bastard or 
Orleans, who had sallied out to assist Clermont in cutting 
it off, preserved sufficient presence of mind to escape 
Fastolffe in the confusion, and to reach the city with 400 
men. The successor of Darnley at the head of the Scottish 
guard was a native of Dundee (before referred to), named 
Robert Patullo, a soldier so famed for his success in 
many affairs in Guienne that he was called ' The Little 
King of Goscony'." 

The Scoto- French alliance was supposed to be made 
closer when, in 1643, the Scottish Princess Margaret 
(daughter of James I), in her twelfth year, was united to the 
dauphin, afterwards the terrible Louis XI, then a year 
older. William Sinclair, third Earl of Orkney, the admiral 
of Scotland, and John Bishop of Brechin, with sixteen 
knights and esquires, 140 young gentlemen, and 1,000 
men-at-arms in nine vessels, formed her train, to intercept 
which the English lawlessly sent out a piratical fleet, which 
was beaten by the Spaniards ; thus the royal bride landed 
safely at Rochelle, and her marriage was solemnised on the 
6th July. (Pinkerton.') " The unhappy bride had passed 



to a husband of famed malignity ; and not all her prudence, 
wit, love of learning, taste for poetry, inherited from her 
princely father, nor her affability, could save her from the 
pangs of domestic distress." The vague word of Jacques 
de Tilloy, a villainous courtier, accused her of conjugal in- 
fidelity, and destroyed her constitution, already enfeebled 
by harshness and neglect. The beautiful Margaret died in 
her twenty-first year, protesting her innocence, to the deep 
grief of her father-in-law, Charles VII. 

Inspired by insular hate, Grafton, the Englishman, 
wrote of her brutally ; but John Major calls her with 
more probability " Virginum formosum et honestam" ; 
and his long residence as a doctor of the Sorbonne in Paris 
gave him opportunities for information, while his simplicity 
is a warrant for his veracity. 

In 1440 the latter, in some manner, reconstituted the 
Scottish guard, and gave precedence to it over all the 
troops in France, designating it " Le Garde-du-Corps 
Ecossais." The Scots gendarmes and garde-du-corps con- 
tinued to form part of the French military force until 
about the year 1788 (War Office Record : 1st Foot). The 
dream of an English empire in France ended in 1451. 

The muster rolls of the Scottish garde-du-corps and the 
gendarmerie, extending from 1419 to 1791, have recently 
been published by Father Forbes-Leith, and are the most 
interesting Scottish lists we possess. 

In 1461 Charles VII died, and Louis XI succeeded him. 
In the vile conspiracies of the latter against his father he 
made many attempts without success to seduce the Scottish 
guard from its allegiance ; and remembering this when he 


became king, he regarded them as his most trustworthy 
supporters in the course of those wars and intrigues by 
which he broke the power of the great feudal lords of 

In 1465 they served in the conflict at Montlhery a 
bloody but indecisive battle fought between the troops of 
Louis XI and those of tbe Ligue du Bien-Public, commanded 
by the Comte de Charolois, afterwards Charles the Bold of 
Burgundy, where so many of his people fell that the field 
is still named the Cimetiere des Bourguinons ; and Louis 
was taken out of the field by the Scots, who fought in a 
circle round him, and conveyed to the old castle of 
Montlhery, which still remains. (De Mezeray.) At this 
time Thomas Boyd, created Eai'l of Arran in 1468, was in 
the service of Charles the Bold, after the ruin of his family, 
and died in exile at Antwerp in 1471, according to 
Buchanan ; though Ferreriers asserts that he was slain in 

Some veterans of the Scottish guard would seem to 
have been at one time settled in the D6partemei;t du Cher, 
according to a communication made by a French pastor to 
the Evangelical Alliance in June, 1863. The Duke of 
Henri chmenfc, Constable of France, settled them on his 
lands, when for a time they turned their attention to iron- 
works and agriculture. " For four centuries," he continued, 
"they have kept distinct, without mingling with their 
neighbours, preserving their Scottish names with but slight 
variations, and also the tradition of their British origin." 

Again, in 1878, the papers contained an account of "the 
Scottish colony of St. Martin d'Auxigny near Bourges," 

s 2 


given by M. le Pasteur Vesson, of Dunkirk, to the effect 
" thai Stuart of Aubigne had established them in the Royal 
forest of St. Martin d'Auxigny, where they numbered 
3,000 persons, and had special privileges till 1789. A 
tall, strong race, they are quiet and shy, but very industrious 
and honest. Their names have been altered, but the 
Scottish original may be easily traced, as for instance Coen 
for Cowiej and in a contract one of them recently signed 
his name ' Opie de Perth.' " (Times, 1878.) 

In 1483 Bernard Stewart of Aubigne, marshal of France, 
came to Scotland as ambassador from Charles VIII to 
renew the ancient league ; and on returning he took back 
with him eighteen companies of Scottish infantry, " under 
the command of Donald Robertson, an expert and valiant 
commander," says Balfour, " who purchased much renown 
under the French king in the wars of Italy." (Annales, 
vol. i.) 

The Scottish auxiliaries certainly won much glory in the 
conquest of Naples and elsewhere in Italy in 1495. 

Guichardin tells us in his history that when Charles 
VIII crossed the Alps the strength of his army was 
40,000 men, with four hundred pieces of cannon, in that 
war which first revealed to Europe that France had risen 
to a place among the powers of the Continent ; but Gui- 
chardin exaggerates. The army of Charles, who had pre- 
tensions to Naples as Thir of Anjou, consisted of 20,000 
men, including the Scots under Stewart of Aubigne, whom 
he valued highly. "In Calabria," says Philip de Commines, 
' he left Monsieur d'Aubigny, a brave and honourable per- 
son, to command in chief. The king had made him 


constable of that kingdom, and given him the county of 
Aen and the marquisat of Iquillazzo." One of the chief 
causes of the French success, says De Mezeray, was their 
artillery drawn by horses, while those of the Italians were 
drawn by oxen. 

Surrounded by the Scottish guard, Charles entered 
Florence in complete mail, with his lance resting on his 
thigh. They fought at Fornovo that battle at the foot of 
the Apennines, when a complete victory was won over the 
united states of Italy. After delivering Sienna and Pisa 
from the Tuscan yoke, Charles took possession of Rome as 
a conqueror, and Paulus Jovius and others have transmitted 
to us an interesting account of the French entry into the 
capital of Alexander VI. 

" First came the Swiss and Germans, keeping step to 
their drums, with banners displayed and parti-coloured 
dresses, their officers all distinguished by tall plumes in 
their helmets, and all armed with swords and pikes ten 
feet long. Every corps of 1,000 had 100 armed with 
arquebuses. Then came 5,000 Gascons, all archers ; then 
the French cavalry, 2,500 of whom were heavily mailed, 
and twice that number more lightly armed, but all with 
fluted spears of great size, and the manes and ears of their 
horses cropped. Then came the king, guarded by the 
Scots, with 300 mounted archers and 200 French knights, 
armed with maces, and wearing gold and purple surcoats 
over their armour. The Scottish Gardes de la Manche are 
immediately next the king, and ride with white hoquetons 
over their mail, in token of their unspotted fidelity." 

Philip de Commines specially mentions the Scottish 


archers at the battle of Fornovo, in July, 1495, wherein, 
after a furious charge, the Italian Estradiots, whose 
favourite weapon was the zagaye, were driven in ; yet only 
nine of the Scots were slain. 

Charles VIII died in 1498, and was succeeded by Louis 
XII, under whom the Scots were again in Italy, serving 
against the Venetians in 1509, as the lists of the French 
army published at that time attest. In particular they 
fought at the battle of Agnadel or Rivalta, when the 
Venetians were defeated with great loss in Lombardy ; but 
of this war history is almost destitute of details. 

THE SCOTS IN FRANCE. (Continued.) 

The Battle of Marignano The Duke of Albany The Battle 
of Pavia Scottish Privileges The Scots in Picardy 
Robert Stuart of Veziers Slays the Constable of France 
Mark Boyd The Battle of Coutras. 

ACCORDING to the spirited work of Forbes-Leith and other 
authorities, the Scottish guard distinguished itself in the 
campaigns of Francis I, and bore itself nobly in the 
great battle of Marignano and on the disastrous day of 

Francis I, who in 1515 succeeded to the throne of France, 
young, brave, and full of ambition, resolved that his first 
military enterprise should be the reconquest of Milan, and 
with this view marched towards the Alps a magnificent 
army on pretence of defending his frontier against the 
Swiss, who had taken up arms at the Papal instigation in 
order to protect Maximilian Sforza, the Duke of Milan, 
whom they deemed themselves bound in honour to sup- 

The armies came in sight of each other at Marignano on 
the Lambro, eleven miles south-east of Milan, where ensued 
one of the most obstinate battles of modern times, at four 
o'clock, on the 13th of October, 1515. " An army of 
25,000 Swiss," says Voltaire, " some with St. Peters's keys 


on their backs and breasts, some of them armed with pikes 
eighteen feet long, moved in close battalions, others with 
large two-handled swords, all advanced with loud shouts 
towards the king's camp in the neighbourhood of Mari- 
gnano. Of all the battles in Italy this was the bloodiest 
and the longest. The French and Swiss, being mixed 
together in the obscurity of the night, were obliged to 
wait for daylight to renew the engagement." 

Surrounded by the Scottish guard, whose commander in 
that year was Robert Stuart, son of the second Lord of 
Aubigne, the king at the first charge made on his vanguard 
repulsed it ere the darkness fell, and both armies halted 
amid the dead and w'ounded, " many of both," says De 
Mezeray, " lying down by each other all the night. The 
king, with his armour on, rested himself upon the carriage 
of a gun, when the great thirst his toil had brought upon 
him made him relish even a little water, mixed with dirt 
and blood, brought to him by a courteous soldier in his 
steel morion." 

The moment day broke he attended to the disposition of 
his arquebusiers, gunners, and Genoese cross-bowmen, and 
by cannon-shot, bullets, and arrows tore the dense Swiss 
battalions asunder, charging through them with his horse, 
himself at the head of the Grarde-du-Corps Ecossais, and 
drove the enemy into a great wood, where numbers of 
them were cut to pieces. 

Of the Swiss, 10,000 fell; of the French, only 400! 
The former, though not routed, gave way, and so ended 
a strife which, says Voltaire, " the old Marechal de 
Trivala used to call the battle of giants. Maximilian 


Sforza was carried into France, like Lewis the Moor, but 
upon milder conditions. He became a subject. The 
sovereign of the finest province in Italy was permitted to 
live in France on a moderate pension." The Chevalier 
Bayard, who had greatly contributed to the victory, was 
knighted on the field. 

At the end of 1523 Francis I was joined by John Duke 
of Albany, previously regent of Scotland, where he had 
been aught but popular. Son of that infamous Alexander 
of Albany (who had been exiled for his intrigues with the 
English) and of his wife, a daughter of the Count de 
Boulogne, born in France, and the husband of a French 
wife, Anne de la Tour of Vendome, he was more than half 
a Frenchman, and had disgusted many of the proud Scottish 
peers and chiefs ; yet Francis, in virtue of his royal birth 
and rank as Count of Boulogne and Auvergne, gave him 
a high command in the French army, when he was en- 
couraged by the Duke of Bouillon to make war upon the 
emperor and invade Luxembourg. Other favours were 
conferred on Albany when Francis led his army into Italy 
again in 1-523, at that time when the constable of Bourbon 
formed a conspiracy 'against him, and, entering the Imperial 
service, endeavoured to thwart his designs upon the Italian 

Albany led a body of Scottish auxiliaries in this war, 
and to them Francis added 600 horse, 10,000 infantry, and 
a train of artillery ; for to him, says De Mezeray, he assigned 
the complete conquest of Naples in 1524, the viceroy of 
which, Launoy, had succeeded Colonno in command there. 
Francis at the same time, to subdue the city of Milan, 


sent forward the Admiral Bonnivet and the Chevalier 
Bayard with 30,000 men. 

While Launoy continued to "amuse" the Duke of Albany 
in Tuscany the battle of Pavia was fought on the 24th of 
February, 1525. Previous to this Francis had laid siege 
to the city " the city of a hundred towers" in the 
October of the preceding year, and this led to the great 
contest in which the Scottish guard displayed the most 
unparalleled loyalty and devotion to diity. 

Led by Pescara and Launoy, a united army advanced to 
the relief of Pavia, whence prudence would have dictated 
a retreat ; but Francis despised to fall back, as his troops 
were strongly entrenched. Seldom have armies engaged 
with greater ardour, more national rivalry, and rancorous 
antipathy. The valour of the French made the Imperialists 
first give ground ; but the fortunes of the day changed. 
The Swiss in the French service deserted en masse, while 
Pescara fell upon the gendarmerie in a fashion to which 
they were unaccustomed, a number of Spanish foot, says 
Guichordini, armed with heavy arquebuses, being chec- 
quered with the cavalry ; while Leyra, sallying out of 
Pavia, made a dreadful assault on the French rear, and then 
the confusion and rout became general. 

Surrounded by the Scottish guard and the flower of the 
nobles, Francis, whose horse was killed under him, fought 
with stern valour, and slew seven men with his own hand. 
Resisting desperately in a circle, man after man, gendarme 
and archer, k right and gentleman, the Scottish guard went 
down till, according to L'ecosne frangoise of A. Houston, 
only four remained alive, when Francis gave up his sword 


to Pomperant, a French gentleman, who followed the 
Constable de Bourbon, and ultimately it was handed to 
Launoy. (Brantome, Guichordin, etc.) Before leaving as a 
prisoner for Pizzighettone he wrote to his mother the 
memorable letter containingthe sublime laconism," Madame, 
tout est perdu fors 1'honneur." 

This event filled Europe with alarm ; Milan was aban- 
doned, and soon not a French soldier remained in Italy. 
The Duke of Albany was compelled, says, De Mezeray, to 
disband the Italian troops he had levied, and then to ship 
his French and Scots, the Spaniards " lending him some 
galleys for that purpose, those of the regent not being 
sufficient to transport them." 

In October, 1533, we again hear of the Duke of Albany 
prominently, when he escorted to Marseilles Catharine de 
Nicolais, whose maternal aunt he had married. On the 
10th of the same month the Pope, Clement VII, arrived at 
Marseilles in the king's galleys. 

Three years after, Albany died in his own castle of 
Minfleur, nine miles from Clermont. Two relics of him 
still exist in France his chapel and palace at Vic-le-Comte, 
in Auvergne. 

On the 13th of August, 1548, our young Queen Mary, 
then in her girlhood, landed in France, the contracted 
bride of the dauphin ; and two years afterwards we find a 
gentleman of the Scottish guard, Robert Stuart, supposed 
to be in the English or Protestant interest, accused of the 
desperate crime of attempting to poison her. What wers 
the proofs of this seem vague ; but he was arrested and 
executed publicly. 


On the 14th of April, 1538, Mary was married to the 
dauphin with great pomp by the Cardinal Bourbon, in the 
cathedral church of Notre Dame a ceremony attended 
by the King and Queen of Prance, four cardinals, the 
princes of the blood, and all the most august personages 
of the realm ; and during the time that the sovereigns of 
Scotland and France were united in marriage their designa- 
tion was : Francis et Maria de Gratia, Rex et Regina 
Scotia, Francia, Anglia et Hibernia. The privileges of 
the Scots in France were most ample, and were in every way 
the same as those enjoyed by French subjects in Scotland 
by Act of Parliament. 

These privileges were fully defined and confirmed by 
Henry, King of France, in a letter of naturalisation 
registered in the Parliament of Paris and Great Council of 
the Chamber of Accompts. Until the Revolution the effects 
of all strangers, Scots excepted, dying in France were liable to 
seizure by the law of that country, even though the heir 
was on the spot ; and the reader may remember Sterne's 
indignant outburst on this subject in the introduction to his 
Sentimental Journey. 

Three years before this auspicious royal marriage some 
of those concerned in the murder of Cardinal Beaton, and 
the subsequent defence of St. Andrews against the French 
fleet, took military service in France. 

Henry IV having recalled from exile the Constable de 
Montmorencie whom his father had warned him never to 
employ in May, 1553, sent him with an army into Picardy, 
where the troops of the aged emperor, after seizing 
Lorraine and ravaging Flanders, were there levying war. 


With the array of the constable went Sir William Kirkcaldy 
of Grange, whom Henry had commissioned as a captain of 
light horse, whose armour covered only the upper part of 
the body, their trunk-hose being quilted and stuffed with 
bombast; their arms, petronels, swords, daggers, and 
demi-lances. Many of Kirkcaldy's friends and kinsmen 
now rode in their armour with the same host. 

Among them we may enumerate Sir James Melville of 
Halhill, then in his 18th year; Archibald Mowbray of 
Barnhougal ; and Norman Leslie, master of Rothes (one 
of the actual assassins of the cardinal), whom King Henry 
had appointed "colonel of the Scotts Lanciers" says 
Balfour in his Annales an appointment which he had won 
through the influence of " the Laird of Brimstone, another 
expatriated soldier of fortune who carried a lance in the 
Spanish wars." After various marches and movements, 
on reaching the neighbourhood of St. Quentin, the vener- 
able constable, old in years and arms, " being in his grand 
climacterick," fell sick, and both armies went into winter- 

The spring of 1554 saw them in the field again. In 
attacking Dinant, a small but ancient city, the French 
were repulsed thrice by a tremendous arquebuse-fire, and 
no less than eleven standard-bearers were shot down in 
succession under their colours in the breach. At that 
crisis, Mowbray of Barnhougal (husband of Elizabeth 
Kirkcaldy of Grange), to set an example, rushed into the 
dangerous breach, sword in hand, but was compelled to 
retire, which he did untouched. (Melville's Memoirs.') 

Eventually Dinant was taken, and afterwards a battle 


took place on the plain before Renti on the 3 1 st of August 
1554. On the preceding day, the constable, perceiving 
that the Spaniards meant to possess themselves of certain 
heights which commanded the French position, sent 
Norman Leslie's Scottish lancers and some other cavalry to 
drive the Imperialists back, and on this duty Melville thus 
describes him : In view of the whole French army the 
master of Rothes, " with thirty Scotsmen, rode up the hill 
upon a fine grey gelding. He had above his coat of black 
velvet his coat of armour, with two broad white crosses, one 
before and the other behind, with sleeves of mail and a red 
bonnet upon his head, whereby he was known often by the 
constable, the Duke d'Enghien, and the Prince de Conde." 
His party was diminished to only seven by the time he 
came within lance-length of the Imperialists, who were 
sixty in number ; but he burst amid them like a thunder- 
bolt, escaping the fire of the arquebuses, and struck five 
from their saddles with his long Scottish lance ere it broke 
to splinters. Then drawing his sword, he hewed among 
them again and again with the reckless valour for which 
he had ever been distinguished. 

"At the critical moment of this most unequal contest 
of seven Scottish knights against sixty Spaniards, a 
troop of Imperial spearmen were hastily idling along the 
hill to join in the encounter. By this time Leslie had 
received several bullets in his person, and finding himself 
unable to continue the conflict longer, he dashed spurs into 
his horse, galloped back to the constable, and fell faint and 
exhausted from his saddle, with the blood pouring through 
his burnished armour on the turf." (Memoirs of Kirlccaldy 
of Grange.} 


By the king's desire he was borne to the royal tent, 
when the Prince de Conde remarked that " Hector of Troy 
had not behaved more valiantly than Norman Leslie." 
The royal surgeon dressed his wounds in vain, as he ex- 
pired at Montreuil fifteen days after the battle, with his 
last breath deploring his share in the murder of Cardinal 
Beaton. (Scot. Chron., Hollinshed.) He was the son of 
George, fourth Earl of Bothes, by Margaret, daughter of 
Lord Crichton. On the day after his exploit the battle of 
Benti ensued, and so furious was the charge of the Spanish 
vanguard that a portion of the army in which Sir William 
Kirkcaldy served, the chevaux legers, fell back, till the 
Spaniards were checked in turn by a column under the Vi- 
comte de Tonannes and a knight of the house of Eglin- 
ton, Sir Gabriel de Montgomerie, styled Lord of Lorges in 
France (Papers of the Archer Guard), and ere long Benti 
was won. 

So highly did King Henry value Norman Leslie's memory 
that the survivors of his Scottish troop of lancers were 
sent back to their own country under Crichton of Brun- 
stone, says Hollinshed, laden with rewards and honours ; 
and by his influence such as were exiles were restored to 
their estates, as a reward for their valour on the frontiers of 

At the battle of St. Quentin, fought on St. Lawrence's 
Day, 1557, the old Constable de Montmorencie fought like 
a lion, but was unhorsed and captured alive by some 
Flemish knights. In that melee Sir James Melville of 
Halhill, who fought close by his side, was unhorsed by a 
blow on the helmet, but was remounted by his servant 


" upon a Scots gelding, which bore him right through the 
enemy," whose swords were aimed at his defenceless head ; 
but, leaping over several walls, he gained the barriers of La 
Fere, where he drew up at the booth of a barber-chirurgeon 
to have his wounds dressed, during which process his horse 
was kindly held, as he tells us, by Mr. Killigrew, an English 
gentleman who served in those wars. The defeat at St. 
Quentin nearly laid France at the foot of the emperor. 
Melville accompanied his friend the constable, a prisoner of 
war, to Cambray, where soon after a treaty of peace was 
concluded, and then Kirkcaldy of Grange returned home. 

" I heard Henry II," Melville says, " point to him 
and say, ' Yonder is one of the most valiant men of our 

Two years after St. Quentin he lost his friend and patron, 
Henry II, who was slain in a tournament when running a 
course with the Count de Montgomerie (captain of the 
Scottish guard). In tilting, the vi-:or of the king's helmet 
flow up, and the lance of the Scot entered his eye. He 
died of the wound, and from that hour tournaments were 
abolished by law in France. 

The new captain of the Scottish guard was James, third 
Earl of Arran. Queen Elizabeth, Coligni, and the Prior 
of St. Andrew's prevailed upon the earl a weak man to 
join with some of his archers in the conspiracy of Amboisc 
in 15GO, concocted by Cond6 against the Guises. It failed ; 
he had to fly, and many of the guard perished in the 

In 1559 Robert Stuart, Seigneur de Veziers, and desig- 
nated as a kinsman of Queen Mary, was accused of being 


connected with the assassination of President Minard, who 
was pistolled in the streets at night, during the Huguenot 
turmoils. He was further accused of a design to fire Paris 
in several quarters, to achieve the liberation of all who 
were incarcerated for religion's sake. These accusations 
failed, but they rankled in the heart of Stuart a bold, 
wild, and reckless spirit, who fought at the battle of 
Dreux in 1562, when the Protestants, under Conde, were 
defeated, and their leader taken prisoner by the Duke de 
Guise, who shared his conch the night after with his 
mortal enemy and slept soundly by his side. 

Stuart also fought at the battle of St. Denis in 1567, 
where he slew with his own hand the veteran constable, the 
general of the Catholics, and where the Huguenots were 
defeated in consequence of their inferior numbers. The 
constable's death is thus recorded by Daulio in his Civil 
Wars of France, folio, 1646 : 

The constable had received four wounds on the face and 
a great one from a battle-axe on the head, yet was en- 
deavouring to rally his soldiers, when Robert Stuart rode 
up with his pistol, and "bent towards him" ; whereupon 
the constable said, " Dost thou not know me ? I am the 
constable !" " Yes, I do," he replied; " and because I know 
thee I present thee this !" and shot him through the 
shoulder ; but, as he was falling, Montmorencie hurled his 
broken sword with such force in Stuart's face that he beat 
out some of his teeth, broke his jawbone, and laid him 
on the field for dead. The constable was then aban- 
doned and left to die by his soldiers. He was in his 
eightieth year. Stuart survived to fight again in the battle 



of Brissar, on the 16th of March, 1569, but was taken pri- 
soner and poniarded to death, probably by some friends of the 
constable. Another Robert Stuart would seem to have 
been about this time imprisoned on some charge in the 
castle of Yincennes, from which he escaped and fled. 

Among the Scottish auxiliaries who served Henry III 
against the German and Swiss mercenaries who entered 
France in support of the King of Navarre was Mark 
Alexander Boyd, younger of Pinkhill, an extraordinary 
genius and scholar, author of Epistolce Heroicum and many 
other poetical and learned works, who was content to 
"trail a pike" as a poor private soldier till he was severely 
wounded in the ankle, and whose adventures, literary and 
otherwise, read like a romance. He died at Pinkhill in 
1601 ; but a sketch of his life was written by Lord Hailes 
in 1783, and an excellent portrait of him was engraved by 
De Leu. 

Among the Sects who fought at Coutras was William 
Duncan, younger of Airdrie ; and Maynor, whose father 
had been taken prisoner at the battle of Flodden. In after 
years William had to fly from Scotland, as an enemy of 
Cardinal Beaton and a reformer. A wound in the bridle- 
arm at Coutras ended his soldiering as a Huguenot. 
Joining his kinsman, Mark Alexander Boyd, at Toulon, he 
engaged in poetry and controversial literature, and, with 
his second brother, Mark, took a high place among 
the learned of France. Some of his poems were inscribed 
to Henry IV, and one to his friend, the celebrated 
Balzac. Mark became physician to the royal household, 
and founded a branch of the Fifeshire Duncans in 


France, where his descendants still exist. (Old Scott. Reg., 
vol. 1114.) 

In 1853 we find William Baillie of Cormiston designed 
archer of the cross to Henry III King of France a term 
of which it is difficult to define the meaning, though it is 
given him in the Scottish Privy Council Register in that 

In the wars between Henry of Navarre and the Catholics 
the Scots in France bore their share. Thus, at the memor- 
able battle of Coutras, fought in 1587 on the plain 
near the confluence of the Dronne and 1'Isle, between 
these portions, when the squadrons of the Protestant chiefs^ 
Tremouille and Turenne, were pierced by the charge of 
Lovardine, a slender company of Scottish gentlemen, who 
fought on the side of the former, attracted the attention of 
all the field, according to D'Aubign6 and Mathieu. 

Though formed up to support the reeling troops, and 
exposed to the whole shock of the victors, they would not 
yield a foot of ground, but fought shoulder to shoulder. 
They were without cuirasses, and had, we are told, only 
buff jerkins with thin plates of metal between the folds, and 
nearly every man of them was wounded. Henry of Navarre 
saw, with regret, their captain, called the Master of Wemyss 
(probably a mistake for Sir John, second son of Sir John 
Wemyss, twenty-first of that ilk), carried on the shoulders of 
David Herriot, one of his followers ; and the king is said, 
" from observing the solicitude and care of the latter for 
his master's life, to have engaged him in his own service. 
What this Scottish troop suffered may be reckoned the 
hardest part of the loss sustained by the conquerors in. 

T 2 



this battle of Coutras, as their whole loss is stated to have 
been only five gentlemen and thirty soldiers." 

In 1588 Henry III was assassinated, and the succession 
to the throne of France was left open to the King of 
Navarre, who, early in the following year, was acknowledged 
as their master. 

" Henry," says the Due de Sully in his memoirs, " no 
longer doubted when he saw the Scots guards, who threw 
themselves at his feet, saying, ' Ah, sire ! you are now our 
king and our master.' And some moments after Messires 
de Biron, de Dampierri, and several others did the same." 

THE SCOTS IN FKANCE. (Continued.) 

First Royal Scots, etc. The Rev. Mr. Welch The Scots 
Guards again Scoto-French Officers A New Campaign 
Passage of the Rhine " Pilot's Guards" Scots at Bingen 
Siege of Taverne Death of Hepburn The Regiment of 

WE have now reached that period when the 1st Koyal 
Scots, first regiment of the British line, and the oldest in 
the world, makes its appearance in the military history of 

Milner, a historian of the 18th century, designates the 
regiment " an old Scots corps" of uncertain date ; but Sir 
John Hepburn (already referred to in our account of the 
Scots in Sweden) was commissioned as its colonel in 
France on the 26th January, 1633, the same date given in 
the British army lists. " This corps," says the War Office 
Record, " must have existed for some time as independent 
companies previously to its being constituted a regiment, 
as Pere Daniel (Histoire de la Milice Franqaise) states that 
it was sent from Scotland to France in the reign of James 
VI, and this monarch commenced his reign in 1567, when 
only a child, and died in 1625 ; hence it is evident that it 
had been in France some years before its formation as a 
regiment under Sir John Hepburn." 


Pere Daniel alludes to it in connection with Henry IY, 
associates its services with the wars of the League, and 
fixes the date of its arrival in France about 1590. The 
companies from which it was constituted are supposed to 
have been raised by men who served in the Scots Archer 
Guard ; and as that force had ceased to exist, " the Royals," 
says the Record quoted, " may be considered as the repre- 
sentatives of that ancient body." It is certain that " the 
King of Scotland permitted his subjects to aid the Protes- 
tant cause, and several companies of Scottish foot were 
raised and sent to France in 1591." 

The Duke de Sully refers to 4,000 Scots and English 
who came over about 1589, and refers to Scottish miners 
whom he employed at the siege of Dreux in 1593. {Memoirs, 
vol. i.) " The English quitted France in 1595 ; but Henry 
IV, having discovered the value of these companies of hardy 
and valiant Scots, retained them in his service," says the 
War Office Record. 

Birrel states in his diary that on the 12th July, 1605, 
the King of France's guard "mustered very bravely on 
the Links of Leith," were sworn, and thereafter received 
their pay ; but this could only refer to recruits of the 
more ancient force the Scots garde- du- corps, which was 

In 1610 Henry IV had been preparing for war with 
Austria, when he was murdered in the streets of Paris. 
After his death, his son, Louis XIII, being a minor, the 
intention was abandoned, and a part of the army was 

Ten years after, Louis XIII was uniting Beam to the 


crown and restoring to the Catholics the churches appro- 
priated by the Huguenots, who again prepared for war ; 
and thus ere long the king found himself reduced to the 
necessity of besieging some of his other towns, among 
others St. Jean d'Angeli, on the Charente, one of the most 
vigorous defenders of which was the Rev. John Welch, of 
Nithsdale, formerly minister of Kirkcudbright, a distin- 
guished divine (who, curiously enough, had begun life as a 
mosstrooper, but was banished by James VI for opposing 
episcopacy in 1606). In St. Jean d'Angeli, which was 
strongly fortified, he had officiated as a clergyman for 
sixteen years when it was besieged by Louis XIII. The 
citizens were greatly encouraged in the defence by the 
fiery precepts and example of Mr. Welch, who took a place 
on the walls and served the cannon with his own hands, 
and when the town capitulated he boldly continued to 
preach as usual. On this Louis sent the Duke d'Epernon 
to bring him into his presence. 

The duke appeared with a party of soldiers in the church 
and summoned Mr. Welch from the pulpit ; but the latter 
coolly requested him to take a seat " and listen to the word 
of God." The duke did so, and heard the sermon to its 
close ; but then took the preacher to the king, before whom 
Mr. Welch knelt and prayed for wisdom and assistance. 
Louis asked him sternly how he dared to preach on the 
verge of the court of France. He replied : 

" First I preach that you must be saved by the deatk 
and merits of Christ, and not your own ; and I am sure 
conscience tells you that your own good works will never 
merit Heaven. Next, I preach that, as you are King of 


France, there is no man on earth above you ; but those 
preachers whom you have, subject you to the Pope, which I 
will never do." " Very well," replied Louis, whom the 
last remark gratified, "you shall be my minister," and 
dismissed him with an assurance of his protection. 

When the town was besieged a second time, in 1621, 
"the king," says the Atlas Geographicus, 1711, "charged 
those who stormed it to take particular care that no hurt 
was done to Mr. Welch, or anyone belonging to him." He 
was sent under escort to Bochelle. He dared not then 
return to London, but afterwards died there, under banish- 
ment, in his 53rd year. His widow, Elizabeth Knox, third 
daughter of the Reformer, died at Ayr in 1G25. 

In the paths of peace as well as those of war, other Scots- 
men have distinguished themselves Among these we may 
mention David Home and the Strachans. " David Home," 
eays Marchond, " was a Scotsman by birth, and of a very 
distinguished family, in which there have been frequently 
noblemen." He lived in the end of the 16th century, and 
was in succession minister of the reformed churches in 
Lower Guienne and Orleans 1603-20. He wrote against 
the Jesuits, and the assassination of Henry IV by the 
madman Bavaillac is said to have been occasioned greatly 
by his pen. 

The Strachans were zealous Catholics James and 
George, who enjoyed the protection of Cardinals Barberini 
and Dupenon. One of them was principal of the College 
of London, where Verbon Grondier was tried and burned 
for sorcery, and where, in 1632, the Superieure was examined 
on her possession by devils and her knowledge of Latin 


and requested the devil who possessed her to say " aqiia in 
the Scottish language." 

By the year 1623 the Scottish guard in France would 
seem to have become somewhat decayed, as in that year, 
Balfour records, Lord Colville went to France to have 
it established according to its " first institution" ; and the 
History of the JZarldom of Sutherland states that in July, 
1625, Lord Gordon made a muster of the corps on the 
Links of Leith, when his younger brother, Lord Melgum, 
was appointed lieutenant. The first gentleman of the 
company was Sir William Gordon, younger of Kindroch. 

We have stated in its place how the result of the battle 
of Nordbrigen almost ruined the Protestant interests in 
Germany, but soon after the court of France agreed to 
support the declining cause ; a French army approached 
the Rhine, and several towns in Alsace received French 

In 1627 there was sent to France, by order of Charles I, 
a singular force a strong band of archers under Alex- 
ander Macnaghton of that ilk, to serve in France, for 
whence they sailed with a number of the Mackinnon clan, 
accompanied by many pipers and harpers. (Trans. Antiq. 
Soc. Scot.) 

In 1633 Sir John Hepburn obtained the command of 
the chief Scottish regiment, with the rank of marechal de 
camp, according to Father Loguille, the Jesuit. At this 
time (Sir Thomas Urquharfc states) there were, among 
others, Scots who were colonels of horse and foot under 
Louis XIII Sir Andrew Gray, Sir John Foulerton, Sir 
John Seton, Sir Patrick Murray, John Campbell, the future 


Earl of Irwin ; Colonels Andrew Lindsay, Thomas Hume, 
John Forbess, John Leslie, Mowat, Morrison, and Living- 
stone. Sir John Seton was the oldest Scottish officer in 
the service, having been a captain in the guards in 1608. 
(Mem. of the Somervilles.) Andrew Rutherford of Hunt- 
hill also had a regiment, which he commanded till 1680, 
when he became a lieutenant-general. (Douglas Peerage.) 

Among the privates in Hepburn's regiment in 1634 was 
a pikeman, John Middleton, who, after distinguishing him- 
self on many occasions, rose in after years to be Earl of 
Middleton, general of Scottish cavalry, governor of Edin- 
burgh Castle, and died in command of the combined 
English and Scottish troops at Tangiers in 1763. 

In 1634 Jacques Nonpar, Marechal de La Force, opened 
the new campaign, which was to spread the frontiers of 
France far beyond those of Champagne and Picardy ; and 
on this expedition marched Sir John Hepburn with his 
regiment and several other Scottish commanders. The 
former had soon an opportunity of showing the skill he 
had won in besieging under the great Gustavus at the 
reduction of La Mothe, in March, which was entrusted 
to him and the regiments of Turenne and De Toneins, 
while La Force with the rest of the army penetrated into 

The blockade lasted five months, during which Hepburn 
lost many of his best soldiers in assaults, against which the 
besiegers hurled enormous stones, which, says the Chevalier 
Andrew Ramsay, Knight of St. Lazare, " split into 1,000 
pieces, killing and wounding all who dared to approach." 
(Hist, de Turenne, par le Chev. Ramsay, Paris, 1735.) 


On the fall of La Mothe Hepburn received orders to 
rejoin the Marechal de La Force, whom he joined with six 
regiments of pikes and musketeers, seven squadrons of 
horse, and a train of guns, after crossing the Rhine at 
Monninghein, and thus securing for his leader the safe 
passage of the great river of Germany. The famous 
Capuchin, Father Joseph du Tremblay, at this time ac- 
companied the French army, and often thrust his advice 
upon its leaders. As the column of Hepburn approached 
Monninghein he pointed out on a map the various fortified 
towns which might be reduced with ease at other points. 
"Not so fast, Father Joseph," said Hepburn ; "towns are 
not taken by a finger end," which reply was long a proverb 
in the French army. 

The winter had come now, snow covered the mountains, 
and ice blocks were crashing in the narrow gorges through 
which the Neckar foamed towards the Rhine, while the 
troops, in half-armour and bufis, toiled on towards the high 
and heavy brow of the Juttenbuhl, where stood the "English 
Buildings," as they are misnamed a palace erected by 
Elizabeth Stuart in imitation of a part of old Linlithgow 
Palace, her happy Scottish home. Here Hepburn broke 
the blockade of the Imperialists, relieved a Swedish garri- 
son, and took possession of Heidelberg on the 23rd December. 
The Marechal de La Force and Hepburn now formed a 
junction with the Swedish army of the Duke of Saxe- Weimar 
at Loudon, consisting of 4,000 horse and 7,000 infantry 
the latter of which were nearly all Scotsmen the veterans 
of Gustavus. Among tl:em was the remnant of the Green 
brigade, who hailed their old commander with joy, and 


beat the Scottish March at his approach, while one solitary 
piper the last of Mackay's regiment blew his notes of 
welcome, and all the survivors of the long career of Swedish 
glory were now incorporated in the Regiment d Hebron, as it 
was named in the French service, and with it the Swedish 
regiment, whilom of Hepburn. 

The strength of the latter was given in 1637 at the 
following : The Lieutenant- Colonel Munro ; the major, 
Sir Patrick Monteith ; 45 captains, one captain-lieutenant, 
93 subalterns, 12 staff-officers, one piper, 664 non-commis- 
sioned officers, 96 drummers, and 48 companies of 150 
pikes and muskets, making a grand total of 8,316 men, 
representing thus the Scoto-Bohemian bands of Sir Andrew 
Gray and all the Scotch corps of Gustavus Adolphus. By 
order of Louis XIII it was to take the right of all regiments 
then embodied. 

Frequent quarrels now ensued between the regiment of 
Hepburn and that of Picardy, the oldest of the French 
line (raised in 1562), and commanded by the Due de 
Charost, as they treated with ridicule the claims of Hep- 
burn's corps to antiquity, and called them "Pontius Pilot's 
Guard," a sobriquet retained by the Royal Scots to this 
day. Thus, on one occasion, after a sharp dispute on 
some contested point of honour, an officer of Hepburn's 
said laughingly to one of the regiment of Picardy . 

" We must be mistaken, Monsieur ; for had we really 
been the guards of Monsieur Pontius Pilate, and clone 
duty at the Sepulchre, the Holy Body had never left it," 
implying that Scottish soldiers would not have slept upon 
their post?, whereas those of the Regiment de Picardy did. 


In the turns of the campaign at the village of Fresche, 
the enemy, under the Duke of Lorraine, fell unexpectedly 
upon the columns commanded by Hepburn and the famous 
Turenne, and a desperate conflict ensued. While each 
main body disputed the ground with the other, Hepburn 
according to the folio Histoire de Lorraine led 200 Scot- 
tish musketeers to the left flank of the foe, while the 
Chevalier Orthe, of Turenne's corps, led 100 French to the 
right, and both poured in a cross-fire, till Hepburn gave 
the order to " charge," and, with a rush downhill, all fell 
on with clubbed muskets the bayonet was yet unknown 
and the troops of Lorraine gave way; but famine com- 
pelled the French to retire. 

At Bingen the Rhine was crossed again by a pontoon- 
bridge, while Hepburn and his Scots covered the sea. 
" They fought for. eight days, almost without intermission" 
(says the memoir of the Duke d'Epernon, folio, 1670), 
" leaving the ways by which they retreated more remark- 
able by the blood of their enemies than their own." 

Not daring to halt, without food, encumbered by heavy 
armour and clumsy matchlocks, short of ammunition and 
all stores, the now dejected French troops traversed path- 
less woods and mountains, pursued by the Imperialists, 
who covered all the country ; but Hepburn and Henri de 
la Tour d'Auvergne were conspicuous among the officers 
who encouraged the sick and the weary ; and it was 
generally remarked that on this desperate retreat none 
suffered less than the hardy Scots of the Regiment d* Hebron. 

In Paris the greatest alarm prevailed ; Richelieu found 
himself on the brink of ruin, by ebb of that war he had 


undertaken for the glory of France, and the year 1635 
closed in doubt and dread. 

Louis XIII now ordered the diploma of a marshal of 
France to be expedited under his great seal at the court of 
Versailles for Sir John Hepburn, but the latter was fated 
not to receive it. 

After the treaty of 1636 between the great cardinal and 
Duke Bernard of Saxe- Weimar against the emperor, Hep- 
burn, with his Scottish regiment, above 8,000 strong, joined 
the duke, and the new campaign was opened with the siege 
of Taverne, which was obstinately defended, as the garrison 
daily expected to be relieved by Count Galas, who had 
given the governor, Colonel Mulheim, a promise to that 
effect ; and Taverne was doomed to be the last scene of 
the gallant Hepburn's long and brilliant career. 

Mulheim's garrison was numerous and resolute (Hist. 
d'Alsace, fol., 1727), and the town, situated among chest- 
nut woods, then in all the foliage of May, was overlooked 
by beautiful scenery. The only approach to the citadel 
whilom a castle of the Bishops of Strasburg was a 
narrow pathway hewn out of the solid rock, steep, narrow, 
and swept by heavy cannon. 

By the 9th June the breach in the walls was practicable, 
and the French, Scots, and German stormers advanced to 
the assault, pikes in front, musketry in rear, and .colours 
flying over the helmets that glittered in the sun. " No- 
thing was heard for a time," says an eye-witness, " but the 
clash of swords and pikes, heavier blows of clubbed 
muskets and swung partizans as they struck fire from 
tempered corslets and morions, amid which the tall plumes 

"A ball from the ramparts struck him in the neck." p. 2 


of Hepburn, Turenne, and Count Jean of Hanau were 
seen floating in the foremost ranks, while the shouts of the 
victorious, the cries of the despairing and dying, the roar 
of muskets, arquebuses, and pistols, with the deeper boom 
of culverin and cannon-royal (48-pounder), seemed only to 
lend a greater fury to the stimulus of the assailants." 

Three hours the assault continued, but the stormers had 
to retire at last, leaving 400 men lying in the breach, the 
chief of whom, the Count of Hanau, was shot through the 

A second and third assault were attempted with equally 
bad success, says the Histoire de Turenne. In an attempt 
to storm the postern Hepburn's regiment lost 50 men, and 
it was at this crisis their gallant leader fell. Rashly he 
had ventured to reconnoitre the great breach too closely, 
when a ball from the ramparts struck him in the neck, 
piercing his gorget. He fell from his horse, and was borne 
away by the Scots, to whom his fall was the signal for a 
fourth and furious assault. (Mercure Franqais, torn, xxi.) 

It was led by Viscomte Turenne. The town was won, 
and the shouts of victory were the last sounds that reached 
the ears of the dying Hepburn as he lay with a crowd of 
his sorrowing comrades the veterans of Bohemian, 
Swedish, and Bavarian wars around him ; and " his last 
words were touchingly expressive of regret that he should 
be buried so far from the secluded kirkyard where the 
bones of his forefathers lay," in Athelstaneford. 

He was not quite in his 38th year. " I find it exceed- 
ingly difficult," wrote Cardinal Richelieu to Cardinal La 
Valette, " upon whom to bestow the colonel's regiment, 


because his eldest captain, who is related to him, is a 
Huguenot, and the Catholics earnestly petition to have it 
conferred upon one of their party, among whom we find 
the Lion Douglas, who is descended from one of the best 
families in Scotland." 

Sir Jchn Hepburn, who, as a contemporary writer, Lith- 
gow, states, won the reptutation of being " the best soldier 
in Christendom, and consequently in the world," was in- 
terred under a noble monument, which was erected to his 
memory by Louis XIV, in the left transept of the cathe- 
dral of Toul, but was destroyed by the Revolutionists in 

By a letter from Pere Georges, cure of the cathedral, 
the author was informed, in October, 1852, that during some 
repairs the coffin of the Scottish hero had been found arid 
reinterred under a monument erected by the Emperor 
Napoleon III. 

On the fall of Taverne Louis XIII conferred the com- 
mand of the great Scottish regiment on Lieutenant- 
Colonel James Hepburn, who had borne that rank under 
Gustavus in 1632. He was of the ancient house of 
Waughton, whence sprang the Earls of Bothwell, and was 
soon after killed at the head of the corps when serving ; 
bnt the circumstances connected with his fall are unknown. 

At the close of 1637 he was succeeded by Lord James 
Douglas, son of the first Marquis of Douglas (who had won 
renown in the wars between Austria and the Protestant 
League), and in the following year the regiment joined the 
army under Marechal de Chastillon to reduce Artois, then 
forming a portion of the Spanish Netherlands. 


In that service, on the 12th July, at the siege of St. 
Omers, a strong force of the enemy attempted to scour the 
trenches held by Douglas's Scots, who repulsed them with 
a great loss in killed, wounded, and taken. (Mercure Fran- 

At the siege of Hesdin,in 1639, the regiment was formed 
in brigade with that of Champagne ; and in a conflict with 
the Spaniards, under the Marquis de Fuentes, lost four 
pieces of cannon. It was in 1G43, when the Douglas regi- 
ment was under the orders of the Prince of Savoy at the 
siege of Turin in Piedmont, that the battalions of Scots 
guards before referred to, after serving at Runcroy and 
elsewhere under the Prince of Conde, were incorporated 
with the already numerous battalion of the Royal Scots 
regiment, and all formed the garrison of Turin after the 
surrender of the city on the 27th September. 

The officers of one of these Guard battalions (the Earl 
of Irwin, Lord Saltoun, and others) raised an action against 
the King of France in the Scots Courts for the expense of 
this corps. (See Trans. Antiq. Soc., 1859.) 

The years 1644 and 1645 saw them fighting in the 
Netherlands in the division of Marshal Meilleraie, like 
other Scottish regiments (those of Chambers, Proslin, etc.), 
covering themselves with glory, while England was torn 
by the great Civil War, and Scotland was involved with 
that of the Covenant; and in 1648 "a troop of Scots 
cuirassiers and the regiment of Scots guards had an 
opportunity of distinguishing themselves at the battle of 
Lens, in Artois, under the Prince of Conde. The Spanish 
army, commanded by the Archduke Leopold, suffered a 



complete overthrow, lost 38 pieces of cannon, 100 standards, 
and colours." (W. 0. Records.) In 1647 all the soldiers 
of Colonel Macdonald taken in Jura were given to Colonel 
Sir Henry Sinclair for his regiment, then in the French 

In 1648 a treaty, concluded at Munster, gave peace to 
the most of Europe ; but the war went on between France 
and Spain ; and on the 6th May, 1649, 300 veteran Scots, 
who had been left to defend Ypres, in Flanders, after a 
fierce and desperate resistance, surrendered, but marched 
out with the honours of war, with drums beating and St. 
Andrew's Cross flying. 


Cuthberts of Castlehill Douglas Regiment in Paris In the 
Netherlands Reduced In England Again in France 
Island of the Scots. 

CHAKLES II, when in exile, curiously enough prevailed upon 
Andrew Lord Gray of Kinfauns, when lieutenant of the 
Gendarmes Ecossais (under the captainship of the Duke of 
Albany), to resign that post in favour of the Marshal 
Schomberg, and, according to Douglas in his Peerage, 
no Scotsman ever possessed it again; but this is doubtful. 

It is a little after this period that we find the Cuthberts 
the Scoto-French family of Castlehill coming into 
prominence, when Jean Baptiste Cuthbert, born at Rheims 
in 1619, in a house in the Rue de Ceres, was recommended 
to King Louis by Cardinal Mazarin in 1662-3, and made 
comptroller- general of France, and as such made the 
riches of the kingdom consist " in commerce," says Anquetil 
in his Memoirs. He died in 1683, full of fame as a minister 
of finance and marine, leaving a son behind, Marquis of 
Signaley, who was proved to claim his descent from the 
Cuthberts of Castlehill. 

In a certificate lately furnished, under the seal of the 
Lord Lyon, of the descent of John Cuthbert, Baron of 



Castlehill, and of Jean Hay of Dalgetfcy, his spouse, the 
family seem to have been settled in Inverness "about the year 
950," a little after the accession of Kenneth II. Their 
residence was the Auld Castlehill, once royal, now in ruins. 
Lord Lyon cites an Act of 1687, certifying the descent 
of Jean Baptiste Colbert, Marquis of Signal ey, from this 
family through Edward Colbert, a son thereof, who went 
to France with Mary Lindsay of Edzell, his spouse, in 1280, 
accompanying Christian de Baliol (niece of Alexander III) 
when the latter went to marry Enguerrond de Guines, Lord 
of Coucy. 

The Cuthbcrts held the lands of Castlehill and others for 
centuries ; were frequently high sheriffs of Inverness ; one 
fought at Harlaw in 1411 and captured the standard of 
the Lord of the Isles, and one, a hundred years later on, was 
styled " Alderman of Inverness." (Spot's Miscel., vol iv.) 
The family passed away in Scotland about the close of the 
18th century ; but in 1 789 we find one of the French branch 
speaking in the National Assembly, on the abolition of 
tithes. In the Edinburgh Advertiser for that year he is 
called " a native of Scotland Bishop of Rhodes. His 
name is Cuthbert ; but, for what reason we know not, the 
prelate calls himself Colbert." His brother Lewis was 
provost-marshal of Jamaica (Stut. Account.) But the 
name is still found in France. Thus, in the Annuaire 
Militaire, 1805, Pierre E. Colbert appears as lieutenant of 
lancers in the Imperial guard; and in 1887 the wife of 
Count de Chabot was a Mademoiselle Colbert, for whom 
Lord Lyon prepared the document above quoted. 

In 1650, when the revenues of Louis XIV became im- 


paired, the Douglas regiment, like the most of the French 
troops, found a difficulty in procuring their pay ; and King 
Charles II, having signed the Covenant, requested the 
return of the Scottish troops to Scotland ; but Louis declined 
to permit this, and sent them to garrison the barrier towns 
of Picardy and Flanders ; but the summer of 1652 saw 
them in the vicinity of Paris, under Marshal Turenne, 
against the insurgents, under Conde, fighting at the barri- 
cades in the Faubourg St. Antoine, when Douglas's Scots, 
with whom the Duke of Abory was serving, stormed one 
of their works near the Seine, sword in hand, with irresis- 
tible valour, after which they retired to St. Denis with the 
king and court. (Clarke's Hist. James //.) 

Conde now held Paris ; the Spanish army entered France, 
and in the conflicts which ensued at Ablon, seven miles 
from Paris, Douglas's Scots bore a conspicuous part. '' On 
one of these occasions a captain of his regiment was taken 
prisoner, but escaped, and brought information that the 
Prince of Cond6 had left the Spanish army through indis- 
position " The king's army, being in want of provisions, 
sought winter quarters in Champagne, while the regiment 
of Douglas pressed the siege of Bar-le-Duc, and captured 
an Irish regiment in the Spanish service. 

Chateau Portieu, in the Ardennes, was their next scene 
of service. On the march thither the weather was so 
severe that many of Douglas's soldiers were frozen to death, 
but the survivors stormed the town on the 10th of January, 

In 1654 the still powerful regiment was employed in 
the Netherlands; and in 1655 its colonel, Lieutenant- General 


Lord James Douglas, commanded the flying camp between 
Douay and Arras. Many fierce skirmishes ensued, and in 
one of these he was killed, in October, in the twenty-eighth 
year of his age. A magnificent monument was erected to 
his memory in the church of St Germain des Pres, where 
it still remains. 

Near it is another monument to his grandfather, William, 
tenth Earl of Angus, one of the leaders of the Catholics in 
Scotland in 1592. He assumed a religious life, and dying 
at Paris in 1611, was interred in St. Germain des Pres. 
Copies of the long and elaborate Latin inscriptions on these 
two tombs are given in the Scots Magazine for 1767. 

Lord James was succeeded in the colonelcy by his brother, 
Lord George, afterwards Earl of Dumbarton, referred to 
in the well-known song of " Dumbarton's drums beat 
bonnie, !" In his youth he had been page of honour to 
Louis XIV, and made the profession of arms his choice. 

In 1660 the French army was greatly reduced in strength, 
and Dumbarton's regiment of eight b ittalions was dis- 
banded, all but eight companies, when in garrison at 
Avennes ; and when after the Restoration Scotland and 
England began to form separate armies of guards, horse 
and foot, the Duke of Albany's troop of guards from Dun- 
kirk and the regiment of Dumbarton from FJanders 
returned to Britain in 1661 ; but the latter returned to the 
French service in the following year. 

At that time General Andrew Rutherford, afterwards 
Earl of Teviot, commander of a battalion of Scots guards 
in the French army, was governor of Dunkirk, and his 
corps was incorporated with that of Dumbarton, which in 


1662 consisted of 23 companies of 100 files each, making a 
total of all ranks of above 2,500 men. 

Three years after its return to France war broke out 
between Britain and Holland, and as Louis took part with 
the latter, the regiment of Dumbarton finally quitted the 
French service for that of its native country, and landed at 
Bye, in Sussex, on the llth June, 1666, when reduced to 
800 men. (Salmon's Chron., etc.) All that follows maybe 
stated briefly. 

After being twelve months in Ireland, the regiment 
returned to the French service at the peace of Breda in 
1668 ; and in an order issued by Louis XIV, 1670, respecting 
the rank of regiments, it appears as one of the first. 
(Pere Daniel.) 

In the war that broke out between France and the states- 
general in 1672, Dumbarton's regiment, now augmented to 
16 companies, joined the division of Marshal Turenne, and 
under the Comte de Chomilly was at the siege and reduc- 
tion of Grom in July. In 1674 the regiment, with the 
Scots battalion of Hamilton, served with Turenne's army 
on the Rhine, and in June was encamped at Philipsburg in 
Western Germany, with the brigade of Brigadier- General 
the Marquis of Douglas. After an incredible deal of 
fighting, marching, and manoeuvring during three years 
on the Rhine and in Alsace under the Marshals Luxem- 
bourg and de Cregin, the corps, in the spring of 1678, 
quitted the French service for ever ; and since then, as 
the First Royal Scots, have been the premier regiment of the 
British army, and possesses a very long inheritance of 
history unequalled in the annals of war and glory. 


At the Revolution the Earl of Dumbarton adhered to 
King James VII, whom he followed to France, where he 
died in 1692. 

Among many others who followed the king into exile 
were David Viscount Dundee, K.T., who died in 1700 ; and 
James Galloway, third Lord Dunkeld, who had joined the 
brother of the former peer, and was with him at Killie- 
crankie, who fell in action a colonel in the French service, 
in which his son James attained the rank of a general 
officer, with a high reputation for valour and skill. His 
name appears in the French Liste des Offiders Generaux 
for May 10, 1748, as " my Lord Dunkell," and he was alive 
in 1 764 ; but of him nothing more is known. 

The period 1693-7 brings us to one of the most touching 
episodes in the story of our military exiles the fate of the 
surviving officers of the army of Lord Dundee : men whose 
magnanimity was worthy of the most glorious ages of 
Athens and of Sparta. " It is delightful," wrote Robert 
Chambers, " to record the generous abandonment of all 
selfish considerations, and the utter devotion to a lofty and 
beautiful moral principle, which governed the actions of 
this noble band of gentlemen." 

According to terms made, the surviving officers of 
Dundee's army were to have their work confined to France 
according to the tenor of their Scottish commissions ; and 
so long as there was a hope of a successful landing on the 
British coast their pay was continued, till, on the paltry 
pretext of expedience, it was withdrawn, and they, only 150 
in number, were reduced to penury, while Dutchmen were 
exalted to rank and power at home. Generously these 


Scottish officers made common stock of their jewellery, 
rings, and watches, and so forth, till starvation came upon 
them, and they obtained King James's permission to form 
themselves into a company of private soldiers for the service 
of King Louis. Previous to joining the army of Marshal 
Noailles, they took farewell of their native monarch at St. 
Germain a last farewell it proved to most of them. 

Of this most remarkable company Colonel Thomas Brown 
was captain ; Colonels Andrew Scott and Alexander Gordon 
were lieutenants ; Major James Buchan was ensign. The 
sergeants were three other officers, Jenner, Lyon, and Gor- 
don ; and in the rank-and-file men were three field-officers 
and forty-two captains. The rest were subalterns. One of 
the captains, John Ogilvie, afterwards killed on the banks 
of the Rhine, was author of the sweet song 

" Adieu for evermore, my love. 
Adieu for evermore." 

King James VII chanced to be going forth to hunt 
on the morning when they paraded before the palace of 
his exile, in French uniform, with their fixed bayonets 
shining in the sun. 

" What troops are these ?" asked the king. 

" Your Majesty's devoted Scottish subjects," replied 
an equerry ; " but yesterday they all bore your Majesty's 
commission to-dny they are privates in the army of 

Then James dismounted and approached them, nearly 
overcome with emotion. 

" Gentlemen," said he, " it grieves me beyond expression 
to see so many brave and loyal officers of my army 


reduced to the station of private sentinels. The sense of 
all you have undergone and lost has impressed me so 
deeply, an it ever please God to restore me to the throne 
of my ancestors, your services and your sufferings will be 
remembered. At your own desire you are going away far 
from me. Fear God ; love one another ; write your wants 
particularly to me, and you will ever find me your father 
and your king." (Dundas's Officers, 1714.) 

With deep emotion they heard him ; he received a list 
of their names, and, covering his face with his handkerchief, 
sobbed heavily, while the whole line sank upon their knees, 
and bowed their heads. Then the word "march" was 
given, and they parted for ever. 

Perpignon in Rousillon was their first destination ; then, 
after a journey of 900 miles in heavy marching order, they 
joined the army of Marshal Noailles. 

" Le gentilhomme est toujours gentilhomme," exclaimed 
that officer when he saw them. 

The ladies of the city presented them with a purse of 200 
pistoles, and bought all their rings that remained a souvenir 
des officiers ecossais ; and wherever they went the tears 
of the women and the acclamations of the men welcomed 

On the 27th of May, 1693, this company, with some 
other Scottish companies, one entirely composed of deserters 
from the 1st Royal Scots, and two of Irish, mounted the 
trenches, at the siege of Rozas, on the coast of Catalonia. 
Major Rutherford led the Scottish grenadiers, and Colonel 
Brown commanded the whole ; and so furious was the 
assault, that the governor beat a chomage and capitulated. 


" Ces sont mes enfants /" cried Marshal Noailles, as he saw 
them storming the breach. 

" By St. lago, they alone have made us surrender !" cried 
the Spanish governor afterwards. 

From thence they marched to Piscador, in the plain of 
the Fluvia, in that awful snow, when 16,000 men perished 
out of an army of 23,000, by starvation chiefly. Famine and 
the bullet slew many, but three-halfpence per diem sufficed 
to feed the Scottish officers, who were fain to eat horse- 
beans and garlic. 

At Silistadt their sufferings inpreased, in that they had 
to part with their wigs and stockings for food. Bread they 
were unable to buy. In 1693 they marched to old Brissac, 
and 1697 saw them on the Rhine, where they performed one 
of the greatest military exploits of the age. 

THE SCOTS IN FRANCE. (Continued.) 

Influence of the Old Alliance Colonel Oswald The Laws of 
Lauriston Field-Marshal Law Governor of Venice 
Colonel- General of the Imperial Guard. 

M. NECKER DE SAUSSURE, in his Voyage en Ecosse et aux lies 
Hebrides, 1806-8, refers pleasantly to the influence which 
he thought the ancient French alliance had on Scotland 
and her people. 

" It is," he wrote, " above all that, in relation to 
strangers, that the Scottish character is displayed to the 
greatest advantage. Hospitality in all its finest shades 
and under every form is the national virtue of Scotland. 
The inhabitants do not partake in the least of the coldness 
and prejudice towards foreigners, which is so justly the 
reproach of the best society in England. ... In looking 
for the causes of this remarkable difference, we shall find 
them in the intimate relations which formerly existed 
between the kingdom of Scotland and continental govern- 
ments, in particular the French nation. This country (France) 
has always been the bitterest enemy and rival of England, 
and was, on the contrary, the closest ally of Scotland. The 
Scots ef er enjoyed in France, up to the time of the Revolu- 
tion, privileges from which other nations were excluded. 
They were exempt from the taxes on foreigners ; they had 


at Paris a college consecrated to the Scottish Catholics and 
regulated by Scottish professors. Scotland also furnished 
to the kings of France a company of bodyguards. So 
many privileges encouraged the nobles and gentlemen to 
travel in France, to educate their children there, and 
frequently to establish themselves in that country They 
learned the French language, spoke it with facility, and on 
their return to their own country they introduced the tone 
and manners of the court of Versailles." 

Towards the end of the 18th century, one of the most 
remarkable Scots in the French army was John Oswald, a 
native of Edinburgh, who, in 1792, became a chef de 
battalion of that ferocious Republican army which marched 
against La Vendee. 

His parents kept a coffee-house in the Parliament Close, 
celebrated in its day as John's Coffee-house, and there he is 
supposed to have been born about the year 1760. He served 
an apprenticeship to a jeweller, and in a frolic enlisted in 
the 18th Royal Irish, but, on succeeding to a good legacy, 
purchased an ensigncy in the 42nd Highlanders, to which 
corps he was gazetted on the 25th August, 1778. On the 
22nd March, 1780, he became lieutenant in the 2nd 
battalion, with which, in the January of the following 
year, he embarked at Portsmouth, under Colonel Norman 
Macleod of that ilk, for the West Indies, where he served 
for three years, and quickly made himself master of Latin 
and Greek. In 1783 he appeared in London, where he 
speedily distinguished himself as a violent Radical and 
pamphleteer, whose writings were " full of crude notions, 
absurd principles, and dangerous speculations." He also 


affected to imitate the Brahmins, and abstained from animal 
food. His verses won him the approbation of Robert 
Burns ; and for the press he adopted the nom de plume of 
Sylvester Otway. His last work in London was The 
Cry of Nature, published in 1791. 

The next year found him in Paris, when the fury of the 
Revolution was at its height, and when a new edition of his 
first pamphlet, A Review of the Constitution of Great 
Britain, with several addenda, soon won him admittance 
to the Jacobin Club, in which he gained such influence as 
to take a leading part in all its bloodthirsty projects. 
Eventually he was nominated by the Revolutionary govern- 
ment to the command of a regiment of infantry, " sans 
culottes," raised from the scam of Paris and the depart- 

On being joined by his two sons, in the true spirit of 
equality he made them drummers ! His adherence to dis- 
cipline won no doubt, in the old "Black Watch" soon made 
him unpopular with the lawless scoundrels he led ; and on 
attempting, it is said, to substitute an efficient pike for the 
wretched muskets with which they were armed, they 
mutinied against him. 

His corps was one of the first employed in La Vendee, 
in that war which, for a time, the Royalists prosecuted 
with success from 1793 to 1795 a resistance singularly 
favoured by the woods, wilds, and thickets of the country ; 
and then he was reported to be killed in battle ; but the 
real story of his fate was that his own men took the oppor- 
tunity of shooting him, his two sons, and an Englishman 
who held a commission in the regiment. 


A few years after, a clergyman of Edinburgh published 
a work proving, to his own satisfaction at least, that Oswald 
was not shot in La Vendee ; but, escaping, appeared in 
time as Napoleon Bonaparte ! (Stuart's Sketches, etc.) 

Under the First Empire there rose to the highest rank, 
civil and military, two men of old Scottish families Law, 
who became Marquis of Lauriston and marshal of France ; 
and Macdonald, who became Duke of Tarentum and also a 
marshal of France. The family of the former have taken 
deep root there, though the antecedents of their name were 
against them ; for the first of them, in the land of their 
adoption, was the famous financial projector, John Law, 
who nearly brought ruin upon it in the reign of Louis XV; 
and whose varied adventures seem to pertain to romance 
rather than to solid history. 

Descended from the Laws of Lithrie in Fifeshire, John 
Law was the only son of William Law, a goldsmith in Edin- 
burgh, where he was born in April, 1671, probably in the 
Parliament Close, though some have averred, in the Tower 
of Lauriston. Though bred to no profession, eai'ly in life 
he exhibited a singular capacity for calculation. On the 
death of his father, he succeeded to the estate and Tower 
of Lauriston, an ancient mansion of the Merchiston Napiers, 
beautifully situated near the Firth of Forth, an edifice 
greatly embellished in recent years by Andrew Ruther- 
ford, Lord Advocate of Scotland. Gambling debts soon 
involved Law deeply, but his estate being entailed, it was 
saved. Tall, handsome, and much addicted to gallantry, 
he went to London, where he soon became well-known as Beau 
Law, and where he had a mortal quarrel with another young 


man known as Beau Wilson, an aspirant for fashionable 
fame about the end of the reign of William of Orange. 

The dispute began between them on the 9th April, 1694, 
at the Fountain Inn, in the Strand, and a meeting was 
arranged for them by a Captain Wightmore, at a place 
then remote from streets, Bloom sbury, where the gallants 
of the period settled affairs of Lonour ; and there, after one 
pass, Law ran Wilson through the body and killed him on 
the spot. " The cause of the quarrel arose from his (Wilson) 
taking away his own sister," says Evelyn, " from a lodging 
in a house where Law had a mistress, which the mistress 
of the house thinking a disparagement to it, and losing by 
it, instigated Law to this duel." 

Law declared the meeting to be accidental. A Scotsman 
was little likely to get justice in London then, so a jury 
found him guilty of murder ; but, pending a commuta- 
tion of sentence, Law escaped from the King's Bench, 
reached the Continent in safety, and was afterwards par- 
doned in 1717. Prior to this he had revisited Scotland, 
where, in 1701, he published, at Glasgow, " Proposals for 
Constituting a Council of Trade in Scotland;" butthese,and 
other schemes, found no favour with the Scottish Parlia- 
ment. Proceeding to France, he had recourse to gaming 
for his subsistence, and won enormous sums at play. 

On obtaining an introduction to the Duke of Orleans, he 
offered his monetary scheme to Chomillart, the Minister of 
Finance, who deemed it so perilous that he ordered him 
to quit Paris in four-and-twenty hours ; and in a similar 
manner it procured his expulsion from Genoa and Venice ; 
but such was his success in play, that, on returning to 


Paris after the succession of Orleans to the Regency, he 
was in possession of fully 100,000 sterling ; and having 
been fortunate enough to secure the patronage of the 
Regent, by letters patent, 2nd March, 1716, his bank was 
established, with a capital of 1 ,200 shares of 5,000 hvres 
each, which soon bore a premium. 

His bank became the office for all public receipts, and in 
1717 there was annexed to it the famous Mississippi scheme, 
in which immense fortunes were realised, and the stock of 
which rose from 500 livresto 10,000 by the time the mania 
reached its zenith, and a frenzy seemed to possess the 
public mind. 

Law's house in the Rue Quinquinpoix was hourly beset 
with applicants, who blocked up the street and rendered all 
progress impossible ; for all ranks peers, prelates, citizens, 
and mechanics, learned and unlearned, and even ladies of 
the highest rank, nocked to that Temple of Plutus, till 
Law was compelled to transfer his place for business to the 
Place Vendome, where the tumult and noise became so 
great that he was again obliged to move, and purchased, at 
an enormous price, from the Prince de Carigna, the Hotel 
Soissons, in the beautiful gardens of which he held his 
levees, and allotted stock to his clamorous clients. 

Amid all this whirl Law retained a strong affection for 
his patrimonial home, " and a story in reference to this 
is told of a visit paid to him by the Duke of Argyll in 
Paris, at the time when his splendour and magnificence were 
at the highest. As an old friend, the duke was admitted 
directly to Mr. Law, whom he found busily engaged 
writing. The duke entertained no doubt that the great 


financier was busied with a subject of the highest import- 
ance, as crowds of the most distinguished individuals were 
waiting in the anterooms for an audience. Great was his 
Grace's astonishment when he learned that Mr. Law was 
merely writing to his gardener at Lauriston regarding the 
planting of cabbages at a particular spot !" 

When the crash came, the amount of notes issued from 
Law's bank more than doubled all specie in France, and great 
difficulties arose from the scarcity of the latter, which was 
hoarded up and sent out of the country in large sums ; thus 
tyrannical edicts were promulgated against all persons 
having more than 500 livres in specie, and Law's notes were 
declared valueless after the 1st November, 1720. The 
10th of the following month saw John Law, the comp- 
troller-general of French finance, flying from Paris to 
his country seat of Guermonde, with only 800 louis in his 
purse, and thence from France, never to return ! 

After residing in England, he returned to the Continent 
in 1725, and fixed his residence at Venice, where he died 
on the 21st March, 1729, in a state of poverty, yet occupied 
to the last in vast schemes of finance. 

He married Lady Catherine Knollys, daughter of the 
third Earl of Banbury, by whom he had a son, William, 
and a daughter, who espoused her cousin, Viscount Wai- 
lingford, afterwards created Lord Althorpe. 

His son, who had been born at Edinburgh in 1675, was 
protected by the Duchess of Bourbon. He rose to be a 
marchal de camp, and remained in France. His cousin, 
James Francis Law, was created Comte de Tancarville 
receiving the venerable stronghold of that name in Quille- 


bceuf, once the abode of the chamberlains of the Dukes of 
Burgundy, a grand edifice, stormed and demolished at the 
Revolution. Charles Grant (Vicomte de Vaux) records 
that among his brilliant services in India, the Comte de 
Tancarville, at the head of only 200 Frenchmen, persuaded 
Shah Zadol with 80,000 to march against the British in 
Bengal, when the Shah was defeated, and, with M. Law, 
" made prisoner on the same day that Pondicherry sur 

This was on the 15th January, 1761, when the unfortunate 
Comte de Lally capitulated to Sir Eyre Coote. This 
was about the same time when a Scottish officer of Lally's, 
Colonel D. MacGregor, with 600 Sepoys, 150 French- 
men, and 1,000 coolies, so vigorously defended the ports of 
Gingce and Thiagur, that he was permitted to march out 
with all the honours of war. 

In 1763, at the peace, Pondicherry was restored to France 
and Law, the Comte de Tancarville, was appointed governor 
and commander-in-chief of all the French settlements in 
the East Indies, where he amassed enormous wealth, most 
of which was swept away amid the future troubles of the 
French Indian campaign. His departure for India is thus 
announced in the London papers of April, 1764 : " Col. 
Law de Lauriston, appointed governor and commander-in- 
chief of the French establishments in the East Indies, is to go 
on board the Due dePraslin, 50 guns, which, in company with 
the Chameau frigate, sails for Pondicherry at the latter end 
of this month." By his wife, Jeanne Carvalhoo, a lady of 
the Mauritius, he had six sons and four daughters. 

Two of his sons he destined for the French army the 



eldest, who became marshal of France, was one of these ; 
two others he resolved should be sailors, and the fates 
of both were miserable. One sailed with the gallant 
D'Entrecosteou in his voyage round the world, and was 
heard of no more ; the other became an officer in the regi- 
ment of Hector, one of the seven battalions of loyal 
emigrants taken into British pay, and which, in 1795, 
embarked at Southampton on board of Admiral Warren's 
fleet for the ill-fated expedition to Cape Quiberon, under 
the Comtes D'Hervilly and De Pusaye. This little army, con- 
sisting chiefly of the regiments of Hector, Hervilly, Duden- 
drenne, 44th, or Royale-Marine, Royal-Louis, emigrant and 
artillery, were cut to pieces on the coast, the regiments of 
Hervilly and Dudendrenne massacring their own officers, 
according to the last dispatch of the Comte de Sombreuil ; 
and all 'the prisoners, including young Law, were shot to 
death, by order of General Hoche. 

The fourth son entered the British service in the West 
Indies, and rose to wealth afterwards as a merchant in the 
city of London; while the eldest, James Alexander Bernard 
Law, adhered to the fortunes of the monarchy. He was 
born at Pondicherry, on the 1st February, 1 7G8, during 
the governorship of his father, the Comte de Tancarville, 
and in 1784 was at the Eoyal Military School of Paris, 
where, fortunately for himself, he was the fellow-student 
and friend of another student, Napoleon Bonaparte ; and 
together they quitted the seminary as second lieutenants of 
artillery. Soon afterwards, Law married the daughter 
of M. le Due, Marechal de Camp and Inspector-General of 
Artillery, of which there was always a school at La Fere, and 
there their eldest son was born. 


When the political storm of 1792 broke out, James Law 
with his family fled to Austria, where he accepted a com- 
mission under the emperor, and, as A.D.C. to General 
Beauvoir, served in the futile and severe campaigns against 
the armies of the Republic. In 1794 he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself at the siege of Maestricht, when it fell 
into the hands of the French ; and at the investment of 
Valenciennes, till the conquest of Holland by Pichegru. 

Afterwards, in Italy, by a turn of fortune, he was among a 
party of captured emigrants and Austrians, who were brought 
before his old brother- student of La Fere, Bonaparte, whose 
protection he claimed, and who assured him that there was 
but one way of escaping the penalty of death, to enter the 
French service as a private soldier. He did so, and the 
5th April, 1796, saw him commanding as chef de brigade 
of horse artillery, and leading that force at Cortiglionie- 
delle-Stevione, where Bonaparte was defeated in June, and 
at Arcola, where, in November, the latter was victorious, 
and compelled the Austrians to raise the siege of Mantua. 

Marengo was fought on the 4th June, 1800, and after 
the victory there, in which the Austrians, though supported 
by 100 guns loaded with grape, failed signally, Law or 
Lauriston, as he was named was ordered by Bonaparte to 
organise the 1st Regiment of Artillery on the system of 
their old 35th Regiment of La Fere ; he also appointed him 
his premier A.D.C., in which capacity he served the cam- 
paign of Egypt ; and, according to General Bourrienne, he 
was the most intelligent officer on the staff of the First 

In 1801 he was sent to Denmark to urge that country in 


its resistance to Britain, and was engaged in many diplo- 
matic missions which, by the treaty of Amiens in October, 
1801, gave to the powers of Europe a brief respite from 
the bloody occupations of recent years. On the 10th October, 
" Colonel Lauriston," as he was named in the English 
papers, arrived in London with the notification of the 
treaty, and, accompanied by the French plenipotentiary, 
had the horses taken from his carriage, which was dragged 
by the joyous populace, with incessant cheers, to their 
hotel in St. James's Street; when the A.D.C. of the First 
Consul came frequently to a window and bowed to the 
masses below, among whom he scattered gold. 

He was seen to be tall, handsome, and young, wearing a 
blue uniform laced with gold, a white vest, and large black 

On the 15th he embarked at Dover, and was at Batis- 
bon, with the rank of brigadier-general, when, so early as 
September, 1802, the political horizon began to darken 
again, and he had to threaten the Diet, that unless the 
war losses were settled in two months, the Republic would 
send 100,000 bayonets into Germany ; and when war was 
declared, to James Law was assigned the command of the 
troops ordered against Bavaria, in conjunction with Ville- 
neuve an expedition never carried out. 

In February, 1805, he was appointed general of division, 
with the diploma of Count Lauriston, taking the title from 
his old hereditary tower in Linlithgowshire one in which 
all his descendants still seem to take a pride. 

On the 30th March following he sailed in the fleet of 
Admiral Villeneuve, with 9,000 men under his orders, to 


retake Surinam and St. Helena, after ravaging all our 
settlements on the coast of Guinea. The Count de Dumas, 
in writing of these things, says, " Singular that Bonaparte, 
on the eve of his coronation, should have been so intent on 
the capture of St. Helena /" 

The 13th May saw this expedition running along the 
beautiful coast of Martinique, where they bombarded the 
Diamond Bock, " which," says Brenton, "is in form very 
much resembling a round haystack, one side overhanging 
its base, but having deep moats all round it." Yet on its 
crumbling sides, never before trodden by man, our fearless 
sailors had skilfully formed a battery, after first carrying 
a cable over it by the string of a kite. Lauristou won 
the Rock by assault, with the loss of 800 men, and, but for 
the appearance of Nelson's fleet, might have retaken Mar- 
tinique. On the 19th his expedition sailed for Europe, 
when final defeat awaited Villeneuve at Trafalgar, before 
which Lauriston rejoined the staff of the Emperor at Ver- 

The year 1805 saw him serving in the Austrian cam- 
paign, the victory of Austcrlitz, and the capture of Vienna ; 
after which he presided, in Presburg, at the execution of 
that treaty of peace which ended in the removal of all 
the Imperial arsenals from Venice, of which he was ap- 
pointed governor in 1807 ; " and one of his first public 
acts, after entering the city, was to erect a splendid tomb 
above the hitherto obscure resting-place of his grand-uncle, 
John Law, the great financier." 

The city and territory of Venice were then annexed to 
the French kingdom of Italy, and remained so till 1814. 


The autumn of 1808 saw Count Lauriston, after attend- 
ing the emperor at the great conference of Erfurt in 
Saxony, take his departure for Madrid, then possessed by 
the French army, with which he shared in some of the fierce 
encounters with guerillas and other patriots in the suburbs 
of that city; and when war was again declared against 
Austria, in 1809, Lauriston was on the staff of Eugene 
Beauharnais, who was then viceroy of Italy for the 
emperor, now, in fact supreme in Europe. 

With Beauharnais he marched for the banks of the 
Danube. Deep then was the hatred cherished by Austria 
for France ; thus she suffered herself to be hurried prema- 
turely into a renewal of strife, which ended in swift and 
terrible disasters, for her finances were confused and her 
warlike preparations defective. 

Lauriston marched through Hungary with Beauharnais, 
and, before Wagram had been won, on the 14th of June, 
1809, Lauriston led more than one brilliant charge in the 
other battle which took place on the plain near the Raab, be- 
tween the army of the Archduke John, who had retreated 
from Italy, supported by the Archduke Palatine with 
25,000 Hungarian insurgents, and the French under 
Beanharnais and Marshal Marmout, each mustering about 
50,000 men. On the 12th and 13th the attacks of the 
French were repulsed with heavy loss ; but, on being rein- 
forced by a strong column under Marshal Davoust, the 
conflict was resumed on the morning of the 14th, when, 
after a noble resistance, the gallant but raw Hungarian 
lines were unable to withstand the well-trained troops of 
France, and by sunset the two archdukes were compelled 


to retreat, with the loss of 2,000 men. Beauharnais claimed 
a great victory ; but the Austrians were in such strength 
at Comorn for some weeks afterwards as to show that the 
losses of the French rendered them unable to pursue ; 
though the indefatigable Lauriston, pushing on with a 
column, on the 24th seized Baab, (or Nagy-Gyor), the 
capital of Buda, a place fortified by nature and art, 
capturing therein 1,500 men, who surrendered prisoners of 

The great victory of Wagram followed on the 6th of 
July. Then Lauriston commanded the artillery of the 
Imperial guard ; and when, in the second day's carnage, 
Napoleon's left wing fell into disorder, the count, with 
one hundred guns drawn at full speed, took an able posi- 
tion, opened fire, and swept away the Austrian left and 
centre by grape and canister, thus deciding the fate of the 
day ! Ever memorable, perhaps, will this three days' battle 
be, in which some 400,000 men, with 1,500 guns, contended 
for mighty interests. " Ten pairs of colours, forty pieces 
of cannon, and 20,000 prisoners, including about 400 
officers and a considerable number of generals, colonels, 
and majors, are the trophies of this victory," says the 
French bulletin. "The fields of battle are covered 
with the slain, among whom are the bodies of several 

In gratitude to Lauriston for his share in winning this 
crowning victory, the emperor with his own hands deco- 
rated him with the Grand Cordon of the Iron Crown of 
Lombardy, which the former had instituted on his corona- 
tion at Milan as King of Italy. 


The peace, signed at Schb'nbrunn in October, followed 
the peace to win which the Archduchess Maria Louisa was 
sacrificed to the ambition of the conqueror ; and among 
those who escorted her from Vienna to Paris was Count 
Lauriston, now colonel-general of the Imperial guard. 

Two important missions now devolved in succession 
upon this trusted officer. The first was one to Holland, 
to convey to Paris the children of Louis Napoleon, king 
of that country, who, beginning to doubt his brother's 
power, placed himself under the protection of Great Britain. 
The second was as ambassador to Russia, to demand the 
return of French garrisons into Riga and Revel, with the 
total exclusion of the British from the Baltic Sea. 

Lauriston failed ; the stupendous invasion of Russia 
followed, by an army such as had never been seen before 
so perfect in equipment, so vast in numbers, and so glori- 
ously led ; but ruin came, and, amid the horrors of the 
retreat from Moscow, as a staff and artillery officer, multi- 
farious and brilliant were the services he performed in the 
cause of his leader. He held conferences with Count 
Kutusof to save Moscow and secure a peaceful retreat for 
the united armies of France, but in vain ; and when that 
awful retrograde movement began a retreat marked by 
miles upon miles of dead men and horses, abandoned guns, 
and other debris to him it was that the emperor gave 
the onerous task of commanding the rearguard upon that 
darkened, desperate route, in which discipline passed away, 
and scarcely even courage remained, as Segur records in 
his terrible narration. 

After reaching Saxony, Lauriston picked out of the ruins 


of the famished, tattered, and blood- stained mobs of soldiery 
the 5th corps of the Grand Army, and led it valiantly 
to battle at Lutzen, at Boutzen, and elsewhere, and at 
Leipzig, the result of which decided the retreat of the 
shattered French army across the Rhine, whither the allies 
followed them. But there was one mystery in the details 
of Leipzig. There, the bridge of the Elster was unexpect- 
edly blown up by an error, some allege; by the treachery 
of Napoleon, say others, to secure his safe flight, aban- 
doning to the enemy the relics of a column, with which, 
were Count Lauriston, Prince Poniatowski, and Marshal 

The latter, a fiery and impetuous Celt, leaped his horse 
into the river and escaped ; but the prince was drowned, 
with thousands more ; and Lauriston, after a long and 
futile, but most gallant resistance, amid the blazing suburbs 
of Leipzig, was taken prisoner and sent to Berlin by the 

The sun of Napoleon was setting now ! 

On the south-east, Wellington, with 100,000 veterans of 
the Peninsular war men who had never failed in battle 
menaced France. On the north-east, the allied monarchs, 
with a million more, soon found their way to Paris, and 
Napoleon abdicated to Elba, with 400 chosen old soldiers 
as a bodyguard. 

Meantime, Louis XVIII was on the throne of France, 
and, with enthusiastic loyalty, the fickle Parisians hailed the 
restoration of the Bourbons, and seemed eager to have the 
blood of him who had so long been their idol. 

Lauriston came to Paris at this crisis. Louis XVIII 


reconstituted the old Mousquetaires Gris (that famous com- 
pany of guards, of which Dumas' hero, Claude de Botz 
d'Artagnan, was commander from 1667 to 1673), and he 
gave the captaincy to Lauriston, who, true to the old 
spirit which led him first to serve the monarchy, when 
Bonaparte landed from Elba, accompanied Louis in his 
flight, and retired to his chateau near La Fere. 

While the avaricious monarchs of Northern Europe were 
wrangling over the distribution of their spoils, the vast 
territories won by Napoleon, the latter suddenly left Elba, 
appeared in France, and the new rule of the Bourbons 
melted away before the figure of the returning emperor ; 
but Waterloo was soon won, boastful Paris fell again, and, 
on the second restoration of Louis, Count Lauriston appeared 
at his court, then held at Cambrai, in the citadel which is 
deemed one of the strongest in Europe ; and on the 17th of 
August, 1815, the king created him a peer of France, with 
the command of the infantry of the Garde Royale, when 
one of the first cares of the Bourbons was to remodel their 
army and place it on a footing adapted to the new order of 
things ; but when 1830 came, the Royal guard was fated 
to be dissolved, and the Swiss guard was discharged the 

In the year 1817 the count was created Marquis of 
Lauriston, and in the June of 1821 received his baton as 
Marshal of France, in succession to his veteran comrade, 
Louis Davoust, Prince of Eckmiihl " the terrible Davoust," 
a title some of his actions procured him, for he was an excel- 
lent soldier but most unprincipled man. With his baton 
Lauriston received command of the 2nd corps of the army of 


the Pyrenees, at a time when the whole Peninsula was in 
commotion, consequent on the embroilment of Ferdinand 
VII with his people and their new constitution. A French 
invasion followed ; Madrid was occupied ; Spain crushed ; 
and Lauriston with his corps laid siege to Pompeluna, which 
was vigorously defended by Don Raymond de Salvador. 
It was a case of " war to the knife." The inhabitants 
barricaded their houses and fought to the death against 
the troops of Marshal Lauriston, whose dispatch in the 
Moniteur of 16th September gives a graphic account of his 
successful attack on the suburbs of that great stronghold of 
Northern Spain, which Salvador soon after surrendered to 

This was the last scene of his military glory. After 
being a short time in the ministry, broken down by past 
campaigns and sufferings undergone in war, he died at 
Paris, somewhat suddenly, on the 10th June, 1828, with 
many of his old comrades around his bed, among them the 
Marshal Dukes of Bagusa and Beggio. 

His eldest son, who bore for a time the title of Baron 
Clapperknowes, from a portion of the Lauriston estate in 
Lothian, was Gentleman du Boi to Charles X; his second 
son, Napoleon Law de Lauriston, was author of several 
historical works and essays ; and the family name is still 
one of importance. 

In the time of the Crimean war, Major-General Q. H. 
Law de Lauriston commanded a brigade of cavalry at 
Lyon; George Charles Law de Lauriston was sous-lieu- 
tenant of the 20th Foot Chasseurs ; and Arthur Louis Law, 
his brother, was lieutenant of the 6th Chasseurs, Cavtderie 
Legere, in China. (Annuaire MiUtaire.) 


" In the list of promotions," says a correspondent in the 
Scotsman, for September, 1875, "I see Law de Lauriston 
gets his squadron. He is descended from Mississippi Law, 
whose renown was once so great in the Rue de Quinquin- 
poix. The captain's grandfather rose to b marshal, 
having served under Napoleon in Spain, Germany, and 
Russia. . . . His marshal's baton is, strange to say, in the 
collection of a gentleman who is also in possession of the 
baton of Marshal Saxe." 


THE SCOTS IN 'FRANC'S. (Concluded) 

Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Tarentum, Captain Ogilvie, etc. 

IN 1784 there was gazetted to the regiment of Dillon, in 
France, Stephen James Joseph Macdonald, then in his 
nineteenth year, having been born on the 17th November, 

The regiment of Lord Dillon was the 94th of the old 
French line, and 3rd of the Irish brigade, placed on the 
strength of the former in 1690, and, like all the rest of that 
brigade, wore scarlet uniform, and carried the British 
crown upon its colours. (Liste Hist, des Troupes de France.) 

The young sous-lieutenant who had previously been a 
cadet in the legion of Maillebois was the son of Neil 
MacHector Macdonald, a gentleman of the Clan Ronald 
in Uist, who had been educated at the Scots College in 
Paris, and had received a lieutenancy in the regiment of 
Ogilvie, through the recommendation of Prince Charles, as 
he was one of the hundred and thirty fugitives who, after 
the horrors of Culloden, had embarked with him on the 
shore of Loch nan Namh in Moidart, near the wild hills 
amid which he had landed, so full of hope and high enter- 
prise, but the year before ! 

Macdonald was a subaltern in the regiment of Colonel 


Dillon till 1792, when the latter was barbarously mur- 
dered by the Revolutionists at Lisle, and his soldiers, with 
all other foreign troops, were turned out of the French 

A love affair his engagement to his future wife, the 
beautiful Mademoiselle Jacob, whose father had joined the 
Revolutionists kept Macdonald in France, where he 
made the first campaign of the new war as a staff-major, 
and on the 1st March, 1793, was appointed colonel of the 
ancient regiment of Picardy, and then general of brigade ; 
and as such he served under Pichegru against the allied 
troops of Britain and Austria, winning high honour by his 
signal bravery at Comines, in West Flanders, and else- 
where ; and on the retreat of the former, after the Austrian 
Netherlands were overrun, he pressed them hard and fol- 
lowed them into Holland. In that moment, says the 
Edinburgh Herald for 10th January, 1799, discovering a 
clansman in command of a harassed British brigade, he 
supplied him with every comfort that circumstances enabled 
him to afford ; till the passage of the Waal on the ice, one 
of his most remarkable achievements. 

The Directory had a dislike of Macdonald and his Scottish 
surname. For a time they deprived him of his command ; 
the coarse deputy, St. Just, saying to Pichegru, " We like 
neither his face nor his name they are not Republican." 
Yet Pichegru stood his friend ; and for his services in Flan- 
ders and Holland, he was appointed a general of division, 
acd as such appeared in Italy, but too late to have any 
part in that aggressive campaign of 1797, when the armies 
of republican France sought to spread their new and 


startling principles throughout the Italian states ; but in 
1798 he was in the army which, under Massena and 
Berthur, proclaimed the Republic in Rome, and grotesquely 
sent a tri-eoloured cockade to the Pope, who retired to 

Macdonald with his column was left to overawe the 
states of the Church, and suppress those risings which 
occurred among the peasantry risings suppressed with 
great severity ; and towards the end of 1798, as commander- 
in-chief of the Roman states, he ordered the levy of two 
regiments of cavalry and one of infantry in each depart- 
ment for the service of the Consulate. 

After an incredible deal of toil, manoeuvring, fighting, 
and remarkable perils almost unequalled in war through 
Naples, Calabria, and Sicily, when Cardinal Ruffo, Fra 
Diavolo, Pronio, and other patriots, made savage by 
the course of events, led thousands from their fast- 
nesses all loyai and hardy mountaineers, seeking to 
free their native land from armies of Jacobin in- 
vaders, till 40,000 soldiers led by Mack dwindled down 
to 12,000 ; when Frenchmen were roasted alive, disem- 
bowelled, bound to trees, and left to be devoured by dogs 
and wolves after facing horrors such as these, we say, 
Macdonald fought his way to Florence on the 5th of June, 
1799, by forced marches. 

Having collected the troops scattered throughout Tus- 
cany, he found himself at the head of 38,000 men, all of 
whom with the exception of the Polish legion were 
French, and ready for the offensive. He detached Montri- 
chard with his right wing to attack Klenau and raise the 



siege of Fort Urbino ; while Olivier, after two encounters, 
overcame Hohenzollern, and not only obtained possession 
of Modena, but drove the Venetians beyond the Po. 
General Kray, alarmed by the successes of Macdonald's 
subalterns, drew off his artillery from before Mantua, and 
took ground in such a manner as, he hoped, to prevent the 
relief of the city. 

But the exploits of Macdonald seemed only beginning. 
Although severely wounded in a recent action, he con- 
tinued his march, and, on reaching Piacenza, formed a 
junction with General Victor, after which he attacked 
General Ott, on the same day, and compelled him to fall 
back upon the castle of San Giovanni. 

Suwarrow, impatient of delay, and fired by the successes 
of Macdonald, threatened to storm the citadel of Turin 
and renew those scenes of carnage so dear to his savage 
nature ; but Furella, who commanded then, defied him, and 
leaving General Klenau to push the siege, he collected at 
Alexandria seventeen battalions of Russians, twelve 
regiments of Austrian horse, three of Cossacks, and 
hurried on to support General Ott, after which ensued 
the three days' battle on the Trebur, an impetuous 
river of the Appenines which falls into the Po above 

On the first day, 17th June, Suwarrow, having re-en- 
forced the Imperial right wing, made a sudden attack, 
with the bayonet chiefly, on the French left, while their 
right was assailed with equal fury by the Russian Prince 
Gortchakoff. On this, Macdonald advanced with his centre 
against the already moving Austrians, but was compelled 


to fall back beyond the Tidone, covered by the fire of his 
artillery till nightfall. 

Early on the dawn of the 18th the allied Russians and 
Austrians crossed the slender Tidone, and in four great 
columns hurled their strength against him, as he drew up 
in order of battle again along the line of the Trebia. As 
the country was thickly intersected by hedges and ditches, 
the approach was tedious, the attack difficult; but the van- 
guard, under Prince Pangrazion, consisting of Cossacks, 
turned the flank with their bayonets. So dreadful was 
their charge that 500 Republicans perished there, while the 
adjutant-general, two colonels, and 600 of the Polish regi- 
ment of Dombroceski were taken prisoners ; but Mac- 
donald, undismayed and unvanquished, with 10,000 men 
crossed the river, and, sword in hand, led them up the 
opposite bank, till repelled by a dreadful cannon and 
musketry fire, which continued to flash out till eleven at 

The battle of the third day, 19th June, did not begin till 
noon, as Macdonald waited for the Ligurians to come up 
under Lapoype; then, over ground strewn by the dead, the 
wounded, and the awful debris of the two days' previous fight- 
ing, the conflict began with freshened fury, when the column 
of Sweyskowski rushed into action, and, under cover of their 
batteries, the French forded the Trebia. Long and doubtful 
was the contest, horrible the carnage, till Melas, the 
Austrian, brought up his cannon at the critical moment, 
and Macdonald, with stern reluctance, began his retreat 
along the right bank of the river, leaving in possession of 
the enemy the field, where 12,000 of them lay dead, 



with 700 prisoners, three pairs of colours, and some 

While the defeat of the Count Bellegarde and the surren- 
der of Turin took place elsewhere, Macdonald, to whom we 
confine ourselves, pursued his march towards Tuscany, and, 
though still suffering from his wounds, personally directed 
all the movements of his troops ; but finding it impossible 
to resist the joint attacks of the three great Austrian 
generals, Ott,Klenau,and Hohenzollern,he marched towards 
Lucca, to form a junction with Moreau, thus ending an ex- 
pedition in which the French lost 12,000 men. " Yet Mac- 
donald," says Stephens, " derived no little glory from the 
retreat, effected without the surrender of a single battalion, 
though undertaken after the loss of a pitched battle and in 
the face of superior forces." (Hist, of the Wars, 1803.) 

His health was now so impaired, though only in his 34th 
year, that he was fain to obtain the permission of Suwar- 
row to visit the baths of Pisa, and by that time the French 
had lost all their conquests in Naples and on the Adriatic 

When they seized on Tuscany, in October, 1800, Mac- 
donald's column was stationed in the country of the 
Grisons, prepared to scale the Rhetian Alps and advance 
to succour their comrades in Italy. Crossing the Spliigen 
the usual way from the Grisons to Como setting his 
soldiers the example, shovel in hand, to cut a passage 
through the snow, he was ready to turn the enemy's lines 
on the Mincio and Adige. Ere long he was in possession 
of the mountains of the Tyrol, hovering between Italy and 
Germany. He made himself master of Trent, and when 

Meeting of Napoleon and Macdonald after Wagram. p. 325 


the treaty of Treviso put an end to the war, he returned 
to Paris, in January, 1801. 

There his opposition to certain measures of Napoleon 
caused him to be sent as minister to Denmark, and, not- 
withstanding all his bravery, loyalty, and endurance, his 
Scottish name, his sympathies for the banished Moreau, 
caused his omission from the list of the marshals of France 
created by Napoleon ; and till 1809 he remained in retire- 
ment and forgotten. 

In that year he received command of a division in the 
corps of Eugene Beauharnais, in the army of Italy, crossed 
the Isolo on the 15th of April, and defeated the Austrians 
at Goritz, in the Littorale, or coast-land, and without delay 
he joined the Grand Army of the emperor before the gates 
of Vienna. After fighting at Wagram, where 36,773 men 
of both armies bled on the field, and where corpses in 
every variety of uniform floated in hideous masses down 
the Danube, and when never was the headstrong valour of 
Macdonald more conspicuous, he was embraced by 
Napoleon, who exclaimed, " Now, Macdonald, for life and 
death we are together !" He received his baton of 
marshal. " Among all the marshals of France," says 
Bourrienne's editor, " there is not one character so pure 
from every stain on a soldier's character, so daringly 
honest to Napoleon in his prosperity, so lastingly true to 
him in adversity, as this, his only Scottish officer.". 

After Wagram, he commanded in the Duchy of Gratz, 
in Lower Styria, when Napoleon became the husband of 
Maria Louisa, and was in the zenith of his power. 

After serving with distinction in the Peninsular war, 


when he co-operated with Sachet at the siege of Tortosa, 
and possessed himself of Figueras, he marched at the head of 
the 10th Corps, of which the Prussian army formed only 
a part, on the terrible invasion of Russia, and, with orders 
to occupy the line of Riga and threaten St. Petersburg, 
he occupied the capital of Livonia in conjunction with a 
British naval force. The invasion part became a failure. 
On the 13th of December, 1812, he was abandoned by the 
Prussians in the face of the enemy, but by that time all 
was lost elsewhere, and the retreat from flaming Moscow 

In 1813 Macdonald commanded an army in Saxony, 
when, at Mercebourg, he defeated the same Prussians who 
had abandoned him in the previous year ; and the dreadful 
battle of Leipzig soon followed that three d.ys' battle, 
when 340,000 men closed in the strife. France was de- 
feated, a retreat to the Rhine became unavoidable, and the 
orders were issued for it at nightfall ; but the execution was 
slow, and whether by treachery or design will never 
now be known the bridge of the Elster was blown 
up while Macdonald and his corps were still defending 

He threw himself into the river and escaped, to reach 
Napoleon, who continued his retreat to Mayence with the 
wretched relics of a shattered host, whose spirit was now 
dead, though a few under Macdonald, at the battle of 
Hanau, made that last stand which was born of despair. 
Hope fled ! The allies were closing on Paris, but Mac- 
donald, true to the instincts of his loyal father, adhered to 
the fallen emperor, and the energy with which he espoused 


his cause at Fontainebleau embarrassed even the Emperor of 

" I shall never forget the faithful services you have ren- 
dered me," said the Emperor Napoleon, who presented to 
him the magnificent robes he had received from Murad Bey 
at the battle of Mont Tabor in Egypt. (Bourrienne, etc.) 

"Sire!" exclaimed Macdonald, "if ever I have a son. 
this sabre shall be his noblest heritage." 

He was now named Councillor of War and Chevalier of 
St. Louis ; and, on the 6th June, peer of France by Louis 
XVIII ; yet, when Napoleon landed from Elba, the first to 
join him was Macdonald, after seeing to the safe flight of 
the luckless king, whom he accompanied as far as Menin. 
The Imperial army crumbled into dust at Waterloo, and in 
1818 Macdonald was one of the four marshals who had 
command of the Royal guard. 

In 1825 he visited Scotland, and expressed to Scott, 
Jefiery, and Cockburn, in Edinburgh, " his pride that he had 
Scottish blood in his veins." 

He visited the fields of Prestonpans, Bannockburn, and 
Culloden, and everywhere was welcomed with Highland 
ardour and hospitality, particularly at Armidale, where he 
was welcomed by the Macdonald clan in full tartan array, 
and saluted by fifteen pieces of cannon. At Castle Tiorin 
there was presented to him an aged clansman, Alaster Mac- 
donald, who had fought by his father's side in the memor- 
able '45. 

After his return to France he lived a life of peace and 
seclusion, and died in his 75th year, on the 24th Septem- 
ber, 1840, at his chateau near Courcelles. 


The Duke of Tarentum was thrice married ; firsfc, as we 
have stated, to Mademoiselle Jacob, one of the most beauti- 
ful girls in France, by whom he had two daughters, one 
married to the Duke of Massa, in Italy, and one to the 
Comte de Perregoux. " He married, secondly, Madam\ 
Joubert, formerly Mademoiselle Montholon, widow of his 
comrade, the brave General Joubert, who was slain in battle 
against Suwarrow at Novi, 16th August, 1799. By her 
he had one daughter, afterwards the Marchioness de 
Rochedragon. He married, thirdly, Madame de Bourgaing, 
widow of the ambassador, Baron de Bourgaing. They 
had two children; to the joy of the old marshal, one 
of them was a son, whom he named Alexander, who in 
October, 1824, was held at the baptismal font by H.M. 
Charles X and Madame the Dauphinesse, and who now 
inherits the dukedom of Tareutum and the sabre of Mont 
Tabor. Such was the career of Stephen Macdonald, the 
son of an obscure fugitive from the fatal field of Culloden." 
(Biog. Dniverselle, etc.) 

We might think that the time had gone past when 
Scotsmen would enter the French service, but it is not 
quite so. Thus we find two at least in it one during the 
Franco- Prussian war, Captain Ogilvie ; and another in 
1886, Baron Brown de Colstoun of Haddingtonshire, giving 
evidence as Bear- Admiral before the Budget Committee at 
Paris, on torpedoes. 

The latter title is singular, as the only child and heiress 
of the last laird of the ancient line of Colstoun was 
married in 1 805 to George, ninth Earl of Dalhousie, whose 
family represent it. 


David Stuart Ogilvie, latterly staff captain of the 
French army, was the eldest son of Thomas Ogilvie of 
Corrimory, Inverness-shire. He had formerly been a lieu- 
tenant in the 20th Madras Native Infantry (or old 2nd 
Eegiment), and in 1855 was captain of division in our 
Land Transport Corps in the Crimea. Subsequently he 
engaged in mercantile pursuits. These proving unfor- 
tunate, he joined the French army during the memorable 
war with Germany, but, though having only the nominal 
rank of captain, received, in the confusion consequent on 
military reverses, the important command of a battalion. 
He served with it at the defence of Paris, and led several 
brilliant sorties, in one of which he fell, mortally wounded. 

Previous to this, " he had been attached to the army of 
the Loire, giving, it is said, M. Gambetta a plan of the cam- 
paign ; but, as has been seen," adds the Elgin Courant, 
" he has died of his wounds, a brave and gallant soldier, 
which he had also showed himself to be in the Crimean 

He was then in his 39fch year, and capitaine d'etat 
major of the 18th Corps d'Armee. 

Daring the same strife Captain A. Duncan, a retired 
officer of French cavalry, was elected commandant of the 
National Guard at Marseilles, in March, 1871. 

Several Scottish names, some curiously misspelled, appear 
in the French Annuaire Militaire, during the Crimean war 
and about that period ; such as Captain Pierre Macintosh, 
63rd Regiment ; Lieutenant Charles V. MacQueen, 66th 
Regiment ; and L. V. MacQuienie, chef de bataillon, 12th 
Chasseurs a Pied; but these were, no doubt, only of 



Scottish descent, like Louis Nathaniel Russel), who in 1865 
was lieutenant in the Corps du Genie, and in 1871 became 
Minister of War. A native of St. Brienne, in Brittany, 
his mother was a Scottish lady named Campbell, and he is 
described as possessing " the cold phlegm of an English- 
man with the clever prudence of a Sootsman." 

In many ways the French still remember kindly the old 
alliance, which placed the double tressure of fleur-de-lya 
round the Royal arms of Scotland. 

" Fier comme un Ecossais !" (proud as a Scotsman) is 
still proverbial, with reference to the dashing men-at-arms 
of the Archer Guard, the fiery Highlanders and the stub- 
born ranks of Lowland pikemen and musketeers, who as 
Soldiers of Fortune upheld the glory of France memories 
more particularly retained in the southern provinces, where 
Republicanism is less than elsewhere. 

" The appearance of the Highland regiments revived these 
recollections," says General Stewart of Garth, " and when 
travelling through Gascony, Languedoc, and Provence, in 
1814, I generally found that the mention of my name met 
with a desire to know if 1 was from Scotland, accompanied 
by many observations on the friendly connection which 
subsisted between France and Scotland, concluding with 
an expression of sincere regret at the interruption of that 
ancient intimacy." 

Curiously enough, the French have never forgotten 
the predilection of their Scottish allies for the national 
haggis, which they still name fain benit d'Ecosse, or " the 
blessed bread of Scotland." 

In Paris some relics of the ancient alliance still linger in 


the names of the thoroughfares ; viz., the Rue d'Edimbourg, 
the Rue d'cosse, a street opening off the Rue St. Hillier; 
and the Rue Marie Stuart, now in New Paris, lying between 
the Rue Montorgueil and the Rue St. Donis. 

In conclusion, we cannot do better th . quote a French 
tribute to Scotland, taken from the Temps for 1887, when 
noticing a recent historical work by the well-known 
French scholar, M. Weisner. 

When visiting Scotland, says the Temps, "he was much 
strucx i y tho friendly feeling for France still kept up in 
f.ii, noble conntry. Old ties between France and Scot- 
land have never been forgotten in Edinburgh. The recol- 
lection of us is upheld there, through that of Mary Queen 
of Scots. Every spot which speaks of her speaks also of 
us. She was our Queen before she was Queen of the Scots. 
The fidelity of this sympathy is shown not only by the 
cordial welcome which all our compatriots receive, but by 
the tone of nearly all the Scottish press towards us. At 
times, when the London papers attack us most strenuously, 
when questions of foreign policy excite the national sus- 
ceptibilities against us, the Scottish papers are absolutely 
free from a single word injurious to France ! This reserve 
is so rare throughout the rest of the world, that it deserves 
our special gratitude ai^J kindest recognition." 





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